Washington, D.C., is analogous to the Thirteen Block Section known as "London Town" which was established approximately 1066 A.D., under William the Conqueror, which IS NOT part of Great Britain proper, and which operates principally in the Admiralty Jurisdiction.
Just as "London Town" IS NOT part of Great Britain proper, Washington, D.C., IS NOT part of the several United States of America, and Washington, D.C., was created by Cession of particular States, and by the acceptance of Congress, to become the Seat of the Government of the United States. See Article I, Section 8, Clause 17 of the Constitution and the "United States" as defined in Title 18 U.S.C. Section 5, "Title" 26 U.S.C. Section 3121(e)(2), and Title 28 U.S.C. Section 1603(c).
In 1790 the PUBLIC DEBT was 75 Millions of Dollars-by-Weight of Gold or Silver, and on or about 1790, the First National Bank was given a Twenty (20) Year Charter.
By 1792, "worthless as a continental" was commonly used to describe those bitter Private Loss-Experiences connected the "The Continental Dollar", issued by the United States in Its Federal Admiralty Jurisdiction under the General Auspices and Control of the Said Federalists.
This technique enable the Federalists to draw-off THE PEOPLES' Wealth replacing it with PAPER.
On April 2, 1792, the Congress (of the several States) passed The Coinage Act of 1792, Such Act exactly compelling the United States to Perform in accordance with Article I, Section 8, Clause 5 of the Constitution, by Prohibiting the United States from issuing PAPER Currency at any time in the future.
In or about 1810, the Congress refused to renew the Federalists' National Banking Charter.
In or about 1812, the Federalists declared War on the United States.
In or about 1815, the Second National Bank was given a twenty (20) year Charter.
In 1815, the court in the case of De Lovio v. Boit, 7 Fed. Cases Number 3, 776 stated that:
"A policy of Insurance is a maritime contract, and therefore of Admiralty Jurisdiction."
In 1835, the Public Debt was 38 thousands of Dollars-by-weight of Gold or Silver, THE LOWEST EVER.
In 1836, President Andrew Jackson forced the closing of the Second Bank of the U.S. by revoking Its Charter. He is said to have been met by the Money Changers Who approached Him in the Drawing Room of the White House, whereupon The President is said to have stated:
"Gentlemen, I have had men watching you for a long time and I am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the bank and annul its charter, I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have determined to rout you out, and by the Eternal God, I will rout you out!"
At the time of the Second Session of the 36th Congress in 1861, while absent a significant PUBLIC DEBT, the Federalists had failed to procure Jurisdiction over all of the Property contained within the several States by Rights of Debt through Contractural Banking Obligations.
Finding Themselves unable to Lawfully Manipulate Credit and Monetary Policy to Their own Gains, Advantages, and Benefits, the Federalists' United States joined in Collusion and Conspiracy with Certain of the several States, and with Certain Foreign Powers under the General Auspices and Control of the Said Federalists, to Commit Treason by Unlawfully Declaring War on Those Lawfully Constituted Governments of the United States of America, Such War being for the Singular Purpose of Overthrowing the Aforesaid Lawful Jurisdictions by Forces-Of-Arms, in a "CIVIL" Counterrevolution for the Purposes of Imposing Federal Admiralty Jurisdiction Upon Each of the United States of America, and upon Each of THE PEOPLE habitat therein.
In 1863, in order to finance Their "CIVIL" Counterrevolutionary Activities, the Federalists passed The National Currency Act of February 25, 1863, Such Act providing for the Issue of Commercial Paper Currency Secured by a Pledge of United States' Stocks, and the Act provided for "circulation and redemption thereof". See The Story of Money, Third Edition (1981), published by: Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 33 Liberty Street, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Postal Zone: 10045.
"The Federal Government couldn't raise enough money to pay for the Civil War through bond sales and taxes. As rapidly as the treasury paid bills with gold and silver coin, the metal was hoarded. Reluctantly, Congress issued paper money -- U.S. notes -- that wasn't redeemable in gold or silver. Congress tried making the notes acceptable by declaring them "legal tender", which meant that they had to be accepted in payment of all private debts. The government also began chartering "national banks" which were given paper currency they could issue as their own. State banks were stopped from issuing notes. National banks received currency in proportion to the amount of Government bonds they purchased."
This technique allowed the Federalists to draw-off THE PEOPLES' Wealth replacing it with PAPER.
On December 18, 1865, the Congress enacted the Thirteenth Article Amendment abolishing Involuntary Servitude while leaving VOLUNTARY Servitude to Contract in its place.
By 1866, the Counterrevolution had been successful, the United States had won, the United States of America had fallen and were held hostage, Federal Jurisdiction and Martial Law had been Imposed, the Federal Monarchy had been installed, and the Public Debt, which was soon to become unquestionable, had attained a value of 2.7 Billions of Dollars-by-Weight of gold or silver.
In July of 1868, the Federalists made Their Declaration of United States Jurisdiction in the form and manner of the Fourteenth Article Amendment to The Constitution for the United States of America. Section 1. "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the Jurisdiction thereof, are Citizens of the United States ...", and Section 4. "The validity of the public debt of the United States ... shall not be questioned." (Emphasis added)
While the Thirteenth Amendment abolished PRIVATE ownership of PEOPLE, the Fourteenth Amendment made possible the PUBLIC ownership of PERSONS. In or about 1870, under the banner of the Census or Enumeration directed to be taken within every subsequent Term of ten Years, the formal practice of Birth Registration was begun, thereafter Recording Births in the Bureau Of The Census, Department of Commerce.
In 1884, in Julliard v. Greenman, 110 U.S. 421, the Supreme Court upheld the United States in reneging on Its Promise To Redeem Its Paper by allowing Its Money Trust to enter a silent interpleader, whereupon Judicial Notice was taken of a Third Party Contract resulting from Julliard using His Commercial Paper Currency as security in a Transaction for his 100 Bales of Cotton thus promoting the practice if Discharging Debt by Obligatory Notes instead of Tendering Payment for Debt in Lawful and Substantive Money in Dollars- by-Weight of gold or silver.
In 1897, the Supreme Court in the case of The Glide, 167 U.S. 623, stated that:
"The Admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction conferred by the Constitution and laws of the United States upon the District Courts of the United States is exclusive."
In 1904, the court in the case of Dailey v. New York, 128 F. 789, stated that:
Jurisdiction attaches in case of a maritime contract irrespective of the question whether it is to be performed on land or water."
In 1907, there was an economic depression.
On February 25, 1913, Secretary of State Knox Falsely and Fraudulently Certified that the Sixteenth Article Amendment to the Constitution had been Lawfully Ratified.
IT SHOULD BE NOTICED that The Sixteenth Article Amendment did not REPEAL those Restrictions Imposed on the United States by Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, or Article I, Section 8, Clause 1; pursuant to those Directives of Article V. Even if it were valid by having been properly ratified, The Sixteenth Article Amendment amended absolutely nothing pertaining to the several States or the Inhabitants thereof.
The Congress, being well aware of these Facts, never ENABLED The Sixteenth Amendment as Public Law by Appropriate Legislation, in that the Amendment did not REPEAL the aforesaid Restrictions, and the Internal Revenue Code ("Title" 26 U.S.C.) which is predicated upon the Sixteenth Amendment, is now, and has always been, "Private Law" based upon Public Commercial (Contractual) Law. See Amendment XXI, ratified December 5, 1933, for the Construction of a "REPEAL".
SEDITION BY SYNTAX ("Public DOES NOT mean "Private".)
More-often-than-not, Public Commercial Law has been called, "PUBLIC LAW" where It is in-fact, Public Commercial Law regulating Private Commercial Contracts and Interests in Equity and Contractual Performance made within the Admiralty Jurisdiction.
Presumably, on April 8, 1913, the several States "VOLUNTARILY" surrendered, and Consented to Deprive Themselves of, Their Rights of Suffrage by the Imposition of the Seventeenth Article Amendment to the Constitution, Such Amendment being an Abrogation of the Intent, Directive, Legal Construction, and Relevant Structural Conditions set forth in Article I, Section 3, and in Article V providing that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of Its Equal Suffrage in the Senate.
IT SHOULD BE NOTICED that When THE PEOPLE of the several States Chartered the United States as an Admiralty Jurisdiction, it WAS NOT the Legislative intent of the September 1787 Congress to put into effect a self-destruct mechanism, Such as could possibly make a Proposed Constitutional Amendment to the several States, where, upon Its Ratification through any mechanism, the Constitutional Prohibitions regulating the United States would somehow cease to exist.
The Congress Itself, has never had the Power to modify The Very Constitution that Created the Congress Itself (Article I, Section 8), and any lawful modification done by way of Amendment, can only be made through the Legislature of three-fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress.
The Congress has been Delegated only those Seventeen (17) Powers enumerated in Article I, Section 8. All other Powers NOT vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof, are specifically reserved to THE PEOPLE for Their exercise of Primary Jurisdiction over Their Respective Governments. See the Tenth Article Amendment to the Constitution FOR the United States of America.
The Congress, once again being well aware of these Facts, never ENABLED The Seventeenth Amendment as Public Law by appropriate legislation, in that the Amendment did not REPEAL Article I, Section 3, nor did it REPEAL Article V of the Constitution.
During the Second Session of the 63rd Congress on December 23, 1913, two days before Christmas while most of the legitimate Congress vacationed, the Federal Reserve Act was passed by a Congressional Quorum establishing the Third National Bank, or the Functionally Secret Federal Reserve Bank, System, or Corporation (hereinafter called FED Corporation), on the basis of another Twenty (20) Year Charter.
The FED Corporation Act Fraudulently CONVERTED the Lawfully Delegated Congressional Power To Coin Money and regulate the Value thereof, while simultaneously Such Act franchised and enabled the newly created FED Corporation to counterfeit Certificates, Notes, Securities, and Other Obligations of the United States by providing for the Private Issue of Private PAPER Currency, where such Public issue of Public PAPER Currency was prohibited to the Congress by Law under Article I, Section 8, Clause 5; and the Coinage Act of April 1792.
The Congress effectively franchised the FED Corporation to carry out that which was Unlawful and Prohibited to the Congress Itself.
IT SHOULD BE NOTICED that no constitutional Amendment pursuant to Article V was ever made Such that the Article I, Section 8, Clause 5 and Article I, Section 10, Clause 1 Prohibitions by the Constitution were REPEALED. Consequently, the Federalists have continued to operate exclusively as Special-Charter Franchisees by Underwriting and Insuring the PUBLIC DEBT in the form and manner of Their FED Corporation, by way of Their own "Sub-Charter" Banks, all under Private Contract Law, and all within the United States' Admiralty Jurisdiction.
Amongst the rumors and presumed excuses for creating the FED Corporation was the alleged creation of a theoretically "ELASTIC CURRENCY" such as would supposedly s-t-r-e-t-c-h so as to avoid those economic depressions as occurred in 1907.
To accomplish this, the FED Corporation printed and circulated Notes, the value of which was 400% of all Lawful money in circulation. This was called "fractional reserve banking" at 25% of par value.
Thus the FED Corporation printed and circulated four (4) Paper Dollars for every one (1) Dollar-by-Weight of Gold or silver supposedly held in reserve in The United States Treasury; thereafter, each one (1) Dollar certificate had an Actual Redemption Value to twenty-five (25) cents. This technique, by the way of Their FED Corporation, enabled the Federalists to withdraw Gold from circulation replacing it with PAPER.
The average Man-On-The-Street was led to believe that the Paper Twenty Dollar Gold Certificate that he held in his Left Hand, had the same Redemption Value as the One Ounce Twenty Dollar Gold Coin that he held in His Right; where in-fact, Each Twenty (20) Dollar Certificate had an actual Redemption Value of Five (5) Dollars-by-Weight of Gold or Silver supposedly held in reserve.
While such "Paper" obligations were prohibited from being issued by The Congress Itself due to The Coinage Act of April 2, 1792, nothing prohibited the FED Corporation from issuing Its PRIVATE Silver Certificates and later, Its totally unredeemable FED Corporation Notes.
From 1914 to 1929, the United States Congress spent the value of four (4) Paper Dollars for every one (1) Dollar-by-Weight of gold or silver held in reverse in Its United States Treasury, thus the Congress participated in extortionate extensions of credit through the continuing re-discounting of commercial PAPER currency as performance obligations.
This technique once again enabled the Federalists to draw-off THE PEOPLES' Wealth replacing it with Paper.
By 1919, the Public Debt was 25 billions of Dollars-by-Weight of gold or silver.
On January 16, 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment was installed providing that after One Year from the Ratification of This Article, the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from THE UNITED STATES AND ALL TERRITORY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF FOR BEVERAGE PURPOSES WAS PROHIBITED.
IT SHOULD BE NOTICED that United States Federal Jurisdiction to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment within the Jurisdictions of the several States was notably absent, as succinctly set forth in the Enabling Clause, where THE CONGRESS AND THE SEVERAL STATES shall have CONCURRENT Power to enforce This Article Appropriate Legislation.
This Article operated exclusively upon the UNITED STATES AND ALL TERRITORY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF, but This Article was without general Force and Effect on the several States unless Each of Such several States individually volunteered to enforce the Article by Appropriate Legislation.
Prohibition, as it was foisted on THE PEOPLE, provided many opportunities to install a strong Federal Police Force by creating the Federal Bureau of Investigation, by enhancing the Secret Service, and by strengthening the preexisting Bureau of Internal Revenue, to name just Three.
By October 1929, the theoretically "ELASTIC CURRENCY" had s-t-r-e-t- ch-e-d to the point where the Public Debt was 17 Billions of Dollars- byWeight of gold or silver.
By June of 1933, at the termination of Its Twenty (20) Year Charter, after having ravaged the Nation with Four (4) years of Depression By Design, the FED Corporation Called Its outstanding United States' obligations. The United States' Treasury was bankrupt, and the creditdiscounted value of Its commercial PAPER currency had s-t-r-e-t- c-h-e-d to such proportions that the Congress was forced to declare an undeclared bankruptcy, without ever having explained the undefined "emergency" mentioned in House Joint Resolution 192, and without ever having notified THE PEOPLE At-Large of the Aspects, Conditions, Nature, or Causes of the Said emergency.
"HJR 192 JOINT RESOLUTION TO SUSPEND THE GOLD STANDARD AND ABROGATE THE GOLD CLAUSE, JUNE 5, 1933 (H.J. Res.192 73rd Cong., 1st Sess.)
Joint resolution to assure uniform value to the coins and currencies of the United States.
Whereas the holding of or dealing in gold affect the public interest, and are therefore subject to proper regulation and restriction; and
Whereas the existing emergency has disclosed that provisions of obligation which purport to give the obligee a right to require payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency of the United States, or in an amount in money of the United States measured thereby, obstruct the power of Congress to regulate the value of the money of the United States, and are inconsistent with the declared policy of the Congress to maintain at all times the equal power of every dollar, coined or issued by the United States, in the markets and in the payment of debts. Now, therefore, be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That [a] every provision contained in or made with respect to any obligation which purports to give the obligee a right to require payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency, or in an amount in money of the United States measured thereby, is declared to be against public policy; and no such provision shall be contained in or made with respect to any obligation hereafter incurred. Every obligation, heretofore or hereafter incurred, whether or not any such provision contained therein or made with respect thereto, shall be discharged upon payment, dollar for dollar, in any coin or currency which at the time of payment is legal tender for public and private debts.
Any such provision contained in any law authorizing obligations to be issued by or under authority of the United States, is hereby repealed, but the repeal of any such provision shall not invalidate any other provision or authority contained in such law.
(b) As used in this resolution, the term "obligation" means an obligation (including every obligation of and to the United States, excepting currency) payable in money of the United States; and the term "coin or currency" means coin or currency of the United States, including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations.
SEC. 2. The last sentence of paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of section 43 of the Act entitled "An Act to relieve the existing national economic emergency by increasing agricultural purchasing power, to raise revenue for extraordinary expenses incurred by reason of such emergency, to provide emergency relief with respect to agricultural indebtedness, to provide for the orderly liquidation of joint-stock land banks, and for other purposes", approved May 12, 1933 is amended to read as follows:
"All coins and currencies of the United States (including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations) heretofore or hereafter coined or issued, shall be legal tender for all debts, public and private, public charges, taxes, duties, and dues, except that gold coins, when below the standard wight and limit of tolerance provided by law for the single piece, shall be legal tender only at valuation in proportion to their actual weight." Approved, June 5, 1933, 4:40 P.M."
Thus On June 5th 1933, the United States Treasury was foreclosed upon by the FED Corporation because the United States' Treasury could no longer pay Its Credit obligations on Its commercial PAPER currency.
SEDITION BY SYNTAX ("Department of the Treasury" DOES NOT mean "United States Treasury Department".)
Upon making the foregoing UNDECLARED "declaration of bankruptcy", the Federalists' Congress began CONVERTING those ALLODIAL LAND TITLES that were Privately Owned by THE PEOPLE, At-Large.
In June of 1933, the Pennsylvania State Legislature pledged the privately owned Allodial Land Titles belonging to THE PEOPLE of the State of Pennsylvania, as security for Its portion of the PUBLIC DEBT (Penn. PL 111). Also see California Government Code Section 126 generally, and specifically Section 126(c). The result of pledging Such Titles as Security for a perpetual PUBLIC DEBT is: that upon Default by the United States, Ownership of the "Pledged" Land will revert to "Public" Federalist Control in satisfaction of Their "Public Debt".
After Fraudulently Pledging Such Titles in which the United States had NO LAWFUL INTEREST, The Congress soon thereafter, began another of Its "borrowing-spending" sprees designed to spend-out the Values of those Privately Owned Land Titles.
In August of 1933, an Executive Order Issued making it illegal for private Americans to own or trade in gold.
On December 5, 1933, The Eighteenth Article Amendment, having fulfilled Its designed purposes, was REPEALED by the Twenty-first Article Amendment, and like the Eleventh, Twelfth, Fourteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-Second, and Twenty-Fifth Amendments, the Twenty-First Article Amendment was never ENABLED as Public Law by Appropriate Legislation.
In 1934, the Federalists passed The 1934 Gold Reserve Act which Proclaimed that gold could not be used as a medium of domestic exchange, and made it illegal for private Americans or firms to own Gold Bullion. This the Act effectively withdrew all remaining Gold from Monetary Circulation by requiring that it be tendered to the Federal Government. Additionally, the Act also restricted private ownership of gold to those who must use gold for industrial or export purposes (a restriction that was rescinded as of December 31, 1974).
Once again the average Man-on-the-street was lead to believe that the Paper One Dollar Silver Certificate that he held in his left hand, was of the same Redemption Value as the Silver Dollar that He held in his Right.
The Gold Reserve Act was enforced under the Police Powers of the United States by the Internal Revenue Service, and Those who failed to relinquish, or refused to tender Their Gold to the Federal Government in exchange for Its Paper, were faced with the confiscation of Their Property, Arrest, Trial, Fines, penalties, and/or Imprisonment.
In 1935 the Social Security (old-age retirement) "Insurance" Act (49 Stat 620) was created by the Congress providing:
for the establishment of the Social Security Board;
for the issue of a Social Security Account Number to those who VOLUNTEERED to "Join The March To Social Security";
that Such Social Security Account Number was, on its face, "NOT FOR IDENTIFICATION PURPOSES"; and
that One would VOLUNTARILY have one-half of one percent (0.005) of the value of one's Wages withheld and deposited into the Social Security TRUST FUND from which, upon living to age sixty-five (65), One could draw some small allotment, Such that One was not utterly destitute in One's twilight years.
The Social Security Act was later codified under Title 42 U.S.C., and is enacted under the "civil rights" provisions of the Fourteenth Article Amendment to the Constitution.
In 1939 The Congress passed the Public Salaries Tax Act which imposed an "income" tax on every "Public" Employee.
In 1942 the Congress passed the "Victory Tax Act" (a direct tax) wherein five percent (0.05) of the value of One's wages was levied, withheld, and converted toward the war effort as an "income" tax.
The "Victory Tax Act" was unlawful on its face in that it violated Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, and Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the Constitution; however, the nation was at War, and no one really complained too loudly about the Violations and Illegalities of Such Act, although vocal oppositions to Such Violations and Illegalities are noted in the Congressional Records pertaining thereto.
In 1944 the "Victory Tax Act" was repealed by the Congress.
In 1945 the Congress passed the "McCarren Act" which provides that ALL "Insurance" be regulated in Interstate Commerce pursuant to Article I, Section *, Clause 3 of the Constitution. See "McCarren Act" -- Black's 5th, Page 883, "Internal Security" -- Black's 5th Page 732, "Internal Security Acts" -- Black's 5th, Page 732, Title 18 U.S.C. 2385 and 2386.
In 1961 the Congress decided to violate the Contractual Restriction that the Social Security Account Number was "NOT FOR IDENTIFICATION PURPOSES" BY USING SUCH NUMBER FOR IDENTIFICATION.
In 1968 Silver was withdrawn as the Substantive Security, Protection, and Indemnification supporting the value and buying-power of the Paper One Dollar Silver Certificate, and Such withdrawal of "backing" was accompanied by further extensions of fractional-reserve lending,
Meanwhile, the Social Security Trust Fund was technically and functionally abolished, and those funds that still remained, after extensive government "burrowing", were ultimately CONVERTED by adding them to the General (revolving) Fund, where such Funds promptly "revolved" right out of existence.
Once again the average Man-On-The_street was led to believe that the PAPER One Dollar Federal Reserve Note that he held in His left hand, was of the same redemption value as the PAPER One Dollar Silver Certificate that he held in His Right, and That was the Truth.
By 1976 the Social Security Account Number was used to "Identify" Each of THE PEOPLE, At-Large as a United States "person" and the Congress added Title 26 U.S.C. 6109 (d) to sanctify its own betrayal.
Thus culminating in HJR 192, the Federalists' Congress had abrogated Article I, Section 8, Clause 2 by digressing from borrowing money on the credit of the United States, through borrowing credit on the money of the United States, through borrowing credit on the money of THE PEOPLE AtLarge, through borrowing credit on the credit of the United States, through borrowing credit on the privately held Allodial Land Titles of THE PEOPLE within several States, to borrowing credit on the perpetual servitude and continued mandatory performance of THE PEOPLE themselves.
Thus when all was said and done, direct Taxes were still required to be apportioned AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES; all Duties, Imposts, and Excises were still required to be uniform; No ... direct, Tax could be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration; and no tax or Duty could be laid on Articles-in-Commerce exported from any State.
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