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Re: War against the Netherlands

Post by Firestarter » Tue Dec 03, 2019 5:02 pm

Maurits of Nassau forced his brother, Frederik Hendrik, to marry so he could inherit his titles. Frederik Hendrik quickly married Amalia of Solms-Braunfels in 1625. Frederik Hendrik became stadthouder (city holder) after Maurits’ dead and Knight of the Garter (KG) in 1627.
His illegitimate son by Margaretha Catharina Bruyns, Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein, had already been born in 1624. This son later became the governor of the young Willem III of Orange for 7 years.

Frederik Hendrik was involved in many local sieges and captures against the Dutch population.
For most of this time the Dutch Republic was allied with France “against” Spain, including the 1635 treaty under which Frederik Hendrik could continue waging wars even if the assembly of Holland refused finance.
But in his last years Frederik Hendrik made a separate peace deal with Spain: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-Henry
(http://archive.is/f7wDX)


When Pensionary of the States Johan de Witt (no KG) was the most powerful politician in the Republic, something had to be done…
The Dutch had received French support during the 1665-1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War.

The Dutch Republic opened talks with Charles II of England, KG in 1638, which led to the Triple Alliance in 1668, between England, the Netherlands and Sweden.
Then in 1671, the English Royal Navy attacked a Dutch merchant convoy in the Channel.

See King Charles II of England in Garter robes, ca. 1685.
Image

In May 1672, France invaded the Netherlands, which started the Franco-Dutch War that lasted to 1678.
The French invasion was used to make Willem III of Orange (KG in 1653, who later became King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland) Stadthouder of the Netherlands (in 1672)!

France had the support of England and Sweden, while the Dutch Provinces were supported by Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. Denmark and Sweden were supposedly archenemies, while Sweden maintained good diplomatic relations with England and France.
King Christian V of Denmark and Norway, who supported the Dutch Provinces, had become a KG in 1662.
King Charles XI of Sweden, who supported France, had become a KG in 1668.

In August 1673, Dutch naval forces defeated an Anglo-French fleet at Texel and captured Nieuw Amsterdam (a.k.a. New York City), and England made peace with the Republic in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster.
Later in December 1674, Sweden attacked Brandenburg-Prussia; this was followed by Swedish involvement in the 1675–1679 Scanian War and the Swedish-Brandenburg War against the armies of Brandenburg, some minor German principalities and the Danish Army: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-Dutch_War
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Johan de Witt, Oliver Cromwell

Post by Firestarter » Sat Dec 07, 2019 5:11 pm

Firestarter wrote:
Tue Dec 03, 2019 5:02 pm
When Pensionary of the States Johan de Witt (no KG) was the most powerful politician in the Republic, something had to be done…
I’ve looked into Johan de Witt and found some interesting information that shows that at the time not only the Netherlands was a republic, but also for some 11 years, England was a republic without a Royal head of state.

In 1649, King Charles I was executed, after he was blamed for the decade of bloodshed in civil wars and the High Court of Justice sentenced him for high treason “against the realm of England”.
Charles denied the legality of the court and pleaded:
I have a trust committed to me by God, by old and lawful descent, I will not betray it, to answer a new unlawful authority … I do stand more for the liberty of my people, than any here that come to be my pretended judges…

King Charles’ death warrant was signed by 59 commissioners; the third signatory was Oliver Cromwell, who then became “Lord Protector” of the Commonwealth Republic.
The House of Commons now abolished the monarchy, on the grounds that it was "unnecessary, burdensome and dangerous to the liberty, safety and public interest of the people" and also the House of Lords as "it is useless and dangerous to the people of England".
Lands owned by the royal family and the church were sold and the money was used to pay the parliamentary soldiers.

I don’t see Cromwell as some sort of “hero” though. He wasn’t a fan of democracy in any way, and after Oliver died in 1658, his son Richard Cromwell became the second lord protector (which looks similar to the Crown Prince inheriting the crown of his father, King)


In 1652, the Commonwealth won the English Civil War against the royalists, with its navy blockading the royalist fleet of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, in Lisbon; KG in 1642 and grandson of William the Silent.
During the English Civil War, Dutch stadthouder Frederik Hendrik gave major financial support to King Charles I of England. As a consequence, Oliver Cromwell considered the House of Orange as an enemy.
In 1656, Charles II turned to Spain for support to reclaim “his” throne, and an alliance was made.

When Frederik Hendrik died, his son Willem II of Orange became stadthouder (city holder) in 1647, but the States of Holland asked Cromwell for support against Willem II.
When Willem II died in 1650, the States of Holland didn’t need Cromwell's support against the Orange bastards anymore.

The Hague was still the residence of the widow of Willem II, Charles I's daughter Mary Henrietta Stuart. The Hague became a gathering place for English Royalist bulwark and was an Orangist stronghold. The English delegation members could only go on the streets under armed escort, for fear of being assaulted by Royalists or large Orangist mobs in the pay of the Royalists.
The English delegation propsed Cromwell’s plan to divide the world into 2 spheres of influence: the Dutch could control Africa and Asia and would help the English in conquering both Americas from the Spanish. The Dutch Provinces didn’t want to join the Commonwealth under any circumstances.

In May 1652, the First Anglo-Dutch war started in the English Channel near Dover between the fleets of General at Sea Robert Blake for the Commonwealth and Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp. The Dutch gained control of the Channel, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean, with English ships blockaded in port.
Cromwell was exasperated that two Protestant republics were fighting and convinced the Rump Parliament to make secret peace contacts with the Dutch. In February 1653, Adriaan Pauw sent a letter from the States of Holland in response indicating their desire to reach a peace agreement.

Cromwell again proposed Dutch assistance in the conquest of Spanish America, but this (again) was rejected. Then Cromwell proposed that all Royalists had to be expelled and that the Dutch should abandon Denmark in its war against Sweden, this was also unacceptable to the Dutch. In the end Cromwell gave in.
On 15 April 1654 peace was declared with the signing of the Treaty of Westminster. The treaty had a secret annex, the Act of Seclusion, forbidding the Dutch to ever appoint the son of Willem II, the 4-year-old Willem III grandson of the beheaded Charles I, as Stadthouder. It is not clear whether this secret clause was inserted on demand by Cromwell or the leading Dutch States party politicians, notably the new State Pensionary Johan de Witt and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff.

It took until 1660, when Charles II (son of Charles I) became King of England, and the English Monarchy was restored. When he ascended to the throne the Act of Seclusion was rescinded, but De Witt still refused to allow Willem III of Orange to be appointed stadthouder or captain-general: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Anglo-Dutch_War


At the time, Charles II with his new Covenanter allies continued to fight against the Commonwealth English Republic in (more) civil wars.
In 1649–50, Cromwell led a Parliamentary invasion of Ireland.
Cromwell's army eventually crushed the Royalist army in Scotland under the command of David Leslie: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland_ ... e_Kingdoms


Oliver Cromwell died suddenly in 1658…
The sickness which eventually killed Cromwell reportedly began at the end of July 1658. From then until 3 September Cromwell suffered 5 bouts of illness, interspersed by interludes of apparent recovery. Cromwell suffered from recurrent bouts of fever, sweating, hot and cold “fits”, pain in his stomach, back and elsewhere, vomiting and diarrhoea.

The fifth and final bout of illness began on 2 September and he died at around 3pm on 3 September.
By common consensus, malaria killed Cromwell.

In 2000, the American Professor H.F. McMains argued that Cromwell had been deliberately poisoned in the summer 1658, initially with antimony, then with mercury, and finally finished off with a lethal dose of arsenic administered on 2 September.
McMains also highlights the (deliberately?) vague and inconclusive nature of the autopsy report of the Royalist George Bate.
McMains concludes that the evidence suggests that Cromwell was poisoned by Bate, assisted by Thomas Clarges and the future bishops of London and Worcester.

In 1961, the corpse of the late Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell was hung in chains at Tyburn and then beheaded: http://www.olivercromwell.org/wordpress/?page_id=1757
(http://archive.is/vsEAn)


While mainstream history falsifiers call the idea that Cromwell was murdered an insane “conspiracy theory”, there is no denying that Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis were brutally murdered on 20 Augustus 1672 and their bodies mutilated.
Image

Ronald Prud’homme has argued that Willem III conspired to have de brothers De Witt murdered.

On 21 June 1672, in The Hague Johan de Witt was stabbed, which seriously injured Johan de Witt, who had to remain in bed to recover until 1 August.
On 29 June, Willem III was appointed Stadthouder by the States of Holland.
On 4 August 1672, Johan de Witt resigned as State Pensionary and Willem III personally made sure that this wasn’t “with honours”.

On 23 July, Willem Tichelaar, asked Cornelis de Witt for help to murder Willem III and then accused De Witt of offering him 30.000 guilders to murder Willem III. After filing charges, Cornelis de Witt was arrested, who in turn accused Tichelaar of asking him to participate in killing Willem III and Tichelaar was also arrested.

On 17 August 1672, eyewitnesses saw Willem III talking at the Valkhuis with 2 confidants, Willem Adriaan van Nassau-Odijk and Frederik van Nassau-Zuilenstein (both relatives of Willem III).
On 20 August, eyewitness Adriaen Copmoijer saw Nassau-Odijk, Nassau-Zuilenstein and Admiral Cornelis Tromp meeting at De Beuckelaer inn near the Gevangenpoort, where Cornelis de Witt was held captive. Tromp was embittered at Johan de Witt because Michiel de Ruyter was chosen as commander of the Dutch fleet instead of him. Those 3 were conspiring to have the brothers De Witt killed.

On 20 August, Tichelaar was acquitted and Cornelis de Witt was banned from the Netherlands for life. Johan de Witt was asked to pick his brother up after his release.
At the time several pamphlets were spread throughout The Hague, while the released Tichelaar was calling for the head of De Witt because he conspired to kill poor Willem III.

While the Gevangenpoort was defended by the cavalry, a false rumour was spread that farmers from the Westland and Delft were going to plunder The Hague. Willem III refused to send troops.
When Count De Tilly was ordered to take the cavalry away to defend The Hague, he knew that the brothers De Witt were “dead men walking”.
Their place was taken by Orangists, who had been given enough to drink at De Beuckelaer, refused to defend the brothers De Witt against the angry mob that included Willem Tichelaar.
After the murder, parts of their bodies were cut out and eaten by the mob and fed to the dogs.

None of the murderers were sentenced to jail. Cornelis Tromp was invited by Willem III only 2 days after the murder.
Several of the murderers – Willem Tichelaar, Johan Kievit, Johan van Banchem, Hendrick Verhoeff - later were rewarded by Willem III, by money and/or a job (in Dutch): https://historiek.net/moord-op-gebroede ... eid/21743/
(http://archive.is/WSRHO)
(in Dutch) https://anemaa.home.xs4all.nl/ges/onder ... _moord.htm
(http://web.archive.org/web/201905311740 ... _moord.htm)

Here’s a (bad) English translation on the murder of the brothers De Witt: https://www.dagvantoen.nl/politieke-moo ... t/?lang=en
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Battle of the Boyne, 1690

Post by Firestarter » Wed Dec 11, 2019 4:21 pm

The 17th century was a time of many, many wars, both between countries and civil wars. Many of these wars were staged by using Protestant and Catholic “Christians” fighting against each other.
At this time the House of Habsburg were the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, while the Kings of the Holy Roman Empire, Spain or France weren’t Knights of the Garter...


In 1685, James (KG in 1642) became King James II of England and Ireland and James VII of Scotland.
In 1688, Stadthouder Willem III of Orange Nassau (KG in 1653) invaded England in what was later dubbed the Glorious Revolution to take the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1689. Supposedly this invasion took place to depose James as he was Catholic.
Willem was the husband and cousin of James’ daughter Mary, the couple later became King William III and Queen Mary II. Even if you believe the official tale, it’s not quite clear why the husband of the Queen would be called “King” instead of Prince…

Now another civil war, called Williamite war, was staged in Ireland, between the Protestant Williamites fighting for James’ daughter Mary and her husband Willem and the Catholic Jacobites fighting for deposed King James (Jacobus is the Latin name for James).
Dutch general De Ginkell advocated a cautious approach and attempted to end Jacobite resistance by a peace settlement.

It was decided through the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 between the Jacobite forces and the Williamite forces that took place across the River Boyne close to the town of Drogheda, and resulted in a victory for William.
What makes the official story seem absurd is that both sides were controlled by the Order of the Garter…

James’ illegitimate son James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick (KG in 1688) was a Jacobite commander.

William's commander-in-chief was Frederic Herman de Schomberg, 1st Duke of Schomberg (KG in 1689), killed in 1690 (aged 74).
Schomberg’s forces were decimated by pestilence: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williamite_War_in_Ireland


The Battle of the Boyne took place on 1 July 1690; in it the Williamites defeated the Jacobite forces of James.
Two days before the battle an Anglo-Dutch fleet were defeated by the French at the Battle of Beachy Head.

The infantry for the Williamites came from the Netherlands (6000) and Denmark (7000), supplied by Prince George of Denmark (KG in 1684), husband of later British Queen Anne, younger sister of Queen Mary II. The Danish infantry was commanded by General Ernst von Tettau
There was also a large contingent of French Huguenot troops (3000), exiled from France because of being Protestants, fighting with the Williamites.
The Williamite forces of around 36,000 men were well trained and equipped with the latest flintlock muskets.

The 23,500 Jacobite forces were mostly peasants who had been pressed into service, without experience that were hastily trained and poorly equipped, most of them with only farm implements like scythes for weapons. The peasants were reinforced by 6,000 French troops.
The Jacobite infantry that actually had firearms were only equipped with obsolete matchlock muskets, so the outcome was very predictable.

Not only had William more and better troops, but also 8 times as much artillery as James: https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Boyne
(http://archive.is/Z8QZz)


For some reason, the Danish infantry is missing from the Wikipedia story of Prince George. They insinuate that he was some sort of enemy of King William III (Dutch Stadthouder Willem III).
Prince George was forewarned of Willem’s 5 November 1688 invasion by the Danish envoy in London, Frederick Gersdorff.

George accompanied King James' troops to Salisbury in mid-November, but on 24 November George deserted him and sided with Willem (at his own expense).
In early April 1689, (now) King William naturalised George as an English subject, and created him Duke of Cumberland, Earl of Kendal and Baron of Okingham (Wokingham).

Wikipedia also insinuates that William didn’t pay George the promised interest and compensation, but admits that he WAS paid in 1700.

After Mary and William died without offspring, James’ other daughter, Anne, became Queen, but this time her husband remained only “Prince” George: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_George_of_Denmark


Firestarter wrote:
Sat Dec 07, 2019 5:11 pm
In 2000, the American Professor H.F. McMains argued that Cromwell had been deliberately poisoned in the summer 1658, initially with antimony, then with mercury, and finally finished off with a lethal dose of arsenic administered on 2 September.
H.F. McMains – The death of Oliver Cromwell (2000): https://books.google.nl/books?id=YqofBg ... ll&f=false
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Battle of Culloden, Scotland, 1746

Post by Firestarter » Mon Dec 16, 2019 5:46 pm

Another civil war was staged in Scotland by the Order of the Garter between Catholic Jacobites and the Protestant army of King George II of Great Britain.
The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745.

In 1714, Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died without living children.
Anne was succeeded George I (KG in 1701) of the House of Hanover, who was a descendant of the Stuarts through his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, daughter of King James VI and I.

Charles Edward Stuart “Bonnie Prince Charlie” raised an army of mostly Scottish clansmen with smaller units of Irish and Englishmen.
Charles Stuart’s Jacobite forces first fought in England and then returned to Scotland, where they were pursued by an army of Hanoverian forces commanded by Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (KG in 1730).

On 30 January 1746, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Scotland to take command of the government forces. Cumberland decided to wait out the winter, while his army was increased with 6,000 Hessian troops, led by the Catholic (!) son-in-law of King George II of Great Britain, Prince Frederick of Hesse (KG in 1741).

On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces were defeated in a “battle” of only an hour, in the Scottish Highlands at Culloden. The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on British soil.
Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded, compared to only some 300 government soldiers. Prince William Augustus became nicknamed “Butcher Cumberland”, because he killed all the Jacobites he could.

While the Hanoverian forces were well-armed, the Jacobites were poorly armed; many were armed only with swords, Lochaber axes, pitchforks and scythes.
After Culloden, Cumberland reported that only 190 broadswords were recovered from the battlefield, of the more that 1,500 Jacobites killed, so less than one seventh (possibly less than 1 in 10) carried a sword.

Charles ignored the advice of General Lord George Murray and chose to fight on flat, open, marshy ground, so that his forces would be exposed to superior government firepower.
The terrain at Culloden was chosen so the larger government army would have an even bigger advantage.

Knight of the Garter – Hanoverians
John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (KG in 1718) raised a cavalry regiment known as Montagu's Carabineers, which was disbanded after the Battle of Culloden.

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (KG in 1718) had rallied all the southern militias and regular forces against the Jacobites who withdrew to northern Scotland.
He was PM from 1757 to 1762.
In 1747, the Duke of Newcastle was involved in organising a coup to put Willem IV of Orange (KG in 1733) in power in the Netherlands, so he could continue the war with the French.

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, (KG in 1726) served under the Duke of Cumberland as Lieutenant-General in the British Army.

Illegitimate son of King Charles II, William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire (KG in 1733), raised a militia unit in support of the King against the Jacobites known as the Derbyshire Blues.

Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull (KG in 1741), raised a regiment called "Kingston's light horse", which distinguished itself at the Battle of Culloden and got the rank of general: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Culloden


It looks like the “independent” Wikipedia has deleted some important information. Usually this is done to hide some terrible scandal…

In Wikipedia’s List of Knights and Ladies of the Garter, both the “Old Pretender” James Francis Edward Stuart, who the Jacobites were supposedly fighting for to install as King, and his son the “Young Pretender” Charles Edward Stuart (a.k.a. Bonnie Prince Charlie) are missing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_K ... the_Garter


Drew Maloney (a.k.a. Prince Arthur of Davidicke.com) also checked the Knights of the Garter in the book “The Knights of the Garter 1348 – 1939” by E.H. Fellowes, in which both James Francis and his son Charles Edward Stuart are missing!
Here’s the PDF by Maloney, one of the very few that has attempted an investigation of the Most Noble Order of the Garter: https://pubastrology.files.wordpress.co ... r-v2_3.pdf


That these Knights of the Garter that supposedly fought against the King, are missing from the official list of Garter Knight, seems to confirm that they were really covert government agents fighting against the Jacobites.


The personal Wikipedia page of the “Old Pretender” James Francis Edward Stuart confirms that he was a Knight of the Garter (installed in 1692): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Fra ... ard_Stuart


The “Young Pretender” Bonnie Prince Charlie is also not listed as a Knight of the Garter in his personal Wikipedia page.
That he was a KG shows from several pictures with Garter star and sash, and his coat of arms at the Palazzo di San Clemente in Florence.
Image

Charlie wasn’t even captured at Culloden (he would have been easily noticed wouldn’t he?) and took the French frigate L'Heureux, arriving in France in September.
Charlie reportedly only once returned to the British Isles, for a secret visit to London: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Edward_Stuart


The following Wikipedia page confirms that Charles Edward Stuart became a Knight of the Garter in 1722, when he was only 1 years old (less than a week before his second birthday): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobite_peerage


Many of these Knights of the Garter were also freemasons…


It has also been suggested that Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington (KG in 1730), despite being “a pillar of the Hanoverian establishment”, covertly and treasonably engaged in Jacobite activities: http://archive.is/3DmKr

See Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, who’s best known for Masonic art, with Garter star and sash.
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Owain Glyndŵr and the Welsh Revolt (1400-1415)

Post by Firestarter » Wed Jan 15, 2020 5:49 pm

Firestarter wrote:
Sat Dec 07, 2019 5:11 pm
In 2000, the American Professor H.F. McMains argued that Cromwell had been deliberately poisoned in the summer 1658, initially with antimony, then with mercury, and finally finished off with a lethal dose of arsenic administered on 2 September.
See H.F. McMains – The death of Oliver Cromwell (2000): https://books.google.nl/books?id=YqofBg ... ll&f=false


Between 1400 and 1415, the Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was staged against the Welsh. Where the Welsh folk “hero” Owain Glyndŵr (or Owen Glendower) fought with Kingdom of England against the people of Wales.

Owain Glyndŵr was born around 1359 to a prosperous landed family and the last native Welshman called “Prince of Wales”, from 1400 until his death (?). Glyndŵr was educated as a lawyer.
The sister of Owain Glyndŵr’s mother had a sister, Marged ferch Tomas, who married Tudur ap Goronwy (later Tudor).

In 1384, Glyndŵr entered the English king's military service.
In August 1385, Glyndŵr served King Richard II (who became King and Knight of the Garter, KG, when he was only 10, in 1377,) under the command of John of Gaunt (KG in 1361, a son of King Edward III of England, uncle of Richard II).

In March 1387, Owain was fighting under Richard FitzAlan, 4th Earl of Arundel (KG in 1386), defeating a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet in the English Channel off the coast of Kent.

In December 1387, Glyndŵr possibly served as a squire to Henry Bolingbroke (later King Henry IV of England, deposing Richard II, KG in 1377, son of John of Gaunt), at the sharp Battle of Radcot Bridge.

In the late 1390s, a series of events were staged to make Owain the leader of a “rebellion”, supposedly against the King of England, but in reality against Welsh “rebels”.
According to Wikipedia, the “revolt” began as an argument with Owain Glyndŵr's English neighbour (Baron Grey).

In 1400, Henry IV appointed Henry "Hotspur" Percy (KG in 1388) to bring Wales to order.
As early as 1401, Hotspur was possibly in secret negotiations with Owain in reaching a settlement.

In 1402, Owain captured his arch enemy, Reginald Grey (or Reynald), 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn. Richard Grey, 4th Baron Grey of Codnor (KG in 1404) was appointed to make sure he was released. From 1403 to 1407, Richard Grey was justice of South Wales.

In June 1402, Owain's forces defeated an army led by Sir Edmund Mortimer, the uncle of the Earl of March, at Bryn Glas in central Wales. Mortimer was also captured. Glyndŵr forced Mortimer to marry his daughter, Catrin ferch Owain Glyndŵr, on 30 November 1402.
Mortimer died in battle in 1409.

In 1403, Henry of Monmouth (future King Henry V of England, KG in 1399) attacked and burned Owain's homes.
On 10 July 1403, Hotspur challenged his cousin Henry's right to the throne and. Henry of Monmouth (aged only 16), fought against Hotspur, who was killed in the battle before Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, King of Mann (KG in 1399).
In February 1405, agreed on the "Tripartite Indenture" with Edmund Mortimer and Henry Percy.

While nominally there was a peace treaty between Wales and England, in 1406 Henry of Monmouth started an economic blockade of Wales.

In 1412, Owain captured and ransomed a leading Welsh supporter of King Henry's, Dafydd Gam ("Crooked David").
Nothing certain is known of Owain after 1412.
But not much is known on 1388 to the late 1390s either …

In 1413, Henry V was crowned King of England, who offered Royal Pardons to the leaders of the Welsh “revolt”. In 1415 Henry V even offered a Pardon to Owain, as he prepared for war with France.
King Henry V was also in negotiations with Owain's son, Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr. It took until 1421 before he finally accepted the Royal Pardon.

In 1415 Adam of Usk, a former supporter of Glyndŵr, wrote that he “died, and was buried by his followers in the darkness of night" (did he really?).
The Welsh rebellion was finally quelled in 1415 after much bloodshed on both sides, many prominent Welsh families were ruined and full English rule was returned to Wales. Maybe that was the whole purpose or maybe it was to get rid of Hotspur Percy and Mortimer?

Many prominent English families are descended from Glyndŵr, including the De Vere family, successive holders of the title Earl of Oxford, and the Cavendish family (Dukes of Devonshire), which suggests that he was really fighting against the Welsh people on the side of the British Royals: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glynd%C5%B5r_Rising
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owain_Glynd%C5%B5r
https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/artic ... nd%C5%B5r/
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English War of the Roses 1455-1487

Post by Firestarter » Mon Jan 20, 2020 6:11 pm

In 1455, the Order of the Garter staged another civil war in England, the “War of the Roses” between the Houses of Tudor and York, which lasted until 1487.

In 1453, King Henry VI of England (also King of France but not in the list of Knights of the Garter?!?) suffered from several bouts of complete insanity.

In 1455, Henry VI was challenged by Edward IV and Richard III (KG in 1466) of the House of York.
Henry VI was married to Margaret of Anjou (who was a Lady of the Garter, but not in the list of Knights of the Garter?!?)

Henry VI was supported by the House of Lancaster and the Kingdoms of Scotland and France, and:

Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 6th Earl of Stafford (KG in 1429).
John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (KG in 1457).
James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond, 1st Earl of Wiltshire (KG in 1459).
Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Pembroke (KG in 1461).

Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (KG in 1474).
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford (KG in 1486).
Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (KG in 1494).


In 1461, Henry VI was deposed as King of England by Edward IV (not in the list of Knights of the Garter?!?).


Henry VI and Richard III (king in 1483-1485) were supported by the Duchy of Burgundy, and:

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (KG in 1433).
John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (KG in 1452).
William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (KG in 1462).

Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (KG in 1470).
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (KG in 1472).
Francis Lovell, 1st Viscount Lovell (KG in 1483).


The following Knights of the Garter fought for both sides (“switched” sides)…

William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent (KG in 1440, whose mother was the legitimised daughter of John of Gaunt).

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (KG in 1461).
John Neville, 1st Marques of Montagu (KG in 1462, younger brother of Richard Neville).
See John Neville’s quartered coat of arms, who took for his crest “a griffin issuing from a ducal crown”; his coat of arms was the Neville “Gules a saltiire argent” with a label “gobong argent and azure crescent” (the gobong is a “border, pale, bend, or other ordinary made up, the first of one row and the second of two rows of squares, consisting of metals and colours alternately” silver and azure.
Image

George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence (KG in 1461, brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III), who was of the House of York. After he switched sides, he was executed for treason in 1478.
Image

In 1485, King Henry VII became the first Tudor King of England (also not in the list of Knights of the Garter?!?): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses
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