Smith’s Bible Dictionary, William Smith, 1884
Easton's Bible Dictionary, Matthew George Easton, 1897…The Persians were of the same race as the Medes, both being branches of the great Aryan stock.
After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the descendants of Noah, "the sons of Japheth" (Gen 10:2), "the sons of Ham" (Gen 6), and "the sons of Shem" (Gen 22). It is important to notice that modern ethnological science, reasoning from a careful analysis of facts, has arrived at the conclusion that there is a three-fold division of the human family, corresponding in a remarkable way with the great ethnological chapter of the book of Genesis (Gen 10). The three great races thus distinguished are called the Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). "Setting aside the cases where the ethnic names employed are of doubtful application, it cannot reasonably be questioned that the author (of (Gen 10)) has in his account of the sons of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating what has become known in modern times as the 'Indo-European Theory,' or the essential unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal races of Europe, indicated by the Celts and the Ionians.
Disciple's Study Bible, Holman Bible Publishers, 1988.The Persians were originally a Medic tribe which settled in Persia, on the eastern side of the Persian Gulf. They were Aryans, their language belonging to the eastern division of the Indo-European group.
Foxe's Book of Martyrs, John Foxe, c. 1560The watershed for the Trinitarian debate was the Council of Nicaea, convened in 325 by the Emperor Constantine. The Council addressed the Arian controversy, which derived its name from Arius, a presbyter of Alexandria. Arius suggested a formula of relationship between the Son and the Father that was ultimately rejected. He maintained that: (1) there is only one unbegotten God, one unoriginated Being, without any beginning of existence; (2) the Son was generated by the Father, created out of nothing before the world was called into being, becoming the greatest and first of all created beings; and, (3) for that reason, the Son is of different essence (heteroousios) from the Father.
Systematic Theology, Charles Hodge, (3 vols., 1871-3)The author of the Arian heresy was Arius, a native of Lybia, and a priest of Alexandria, who, in AD 318, began to publish his errors. He was condemned by a council of Lybian and Egyptian bishops, and that sentence was confirmed by the Council of Nicea AD 325. After the death of Constantine the Great, the Arians found means to ingratiate themselves into the favor of the emperor Constantinus, his son and successor in the east; and hence a persecution was raised against the orthodox bishops and clergy.
The celebrated Athanasius, and other bishops, were banished, and their sees filled with Arians.
In Egypt and Lybia, thirty bishops were martyred, and many other Christians cruelly tormented; and, AD 386, George, the Arian bishop of Alexandria, under the authority of the emperor, began; a persecution in that city and its environs, and carried it on with the most infernal severity. He was assisted in his diabolical malice by Catophonius, governor of Egypt; Sebastian, general of the Egyptian forces; Faustinus, the treasurer; and Heraclius, a Roman officer.
The persecutions now raged in such a manner that the clergy were driven from Alexandria, their churches were shut, and the severities practiced by the Arian heretics were as great as those that had been practiced by the pagan idolaters. If a man, accused of being a Christian, made his escape, then his whole family were massacred, and his effects confiscated.
DEFINITIONSThere can be little doubt that when the Aryan tribes entered India, fifteen hundred or two thousand years before Christ, pantheism was their established belief. The unknown, and "unconditioned" infinite Being, reveals itself according to the Hindu system, as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva,—that is, as Creator, Preserver, and Restorer. These were not persons, but modes of manifestation. It was in this form that the idea of an endless process of development of the infinite into the finite, and of the return of the finite into the infinite, was expressed. It was from this pantheistic principle that the endless polytheism of the Hindus naturally developed itself; and this determined the character of their whole religion. As all that is, is only a manifestation of God, everything remarkable, and especially the appearance of any remarkable man, was regarded as an "avatar," or incarnation of God, in one or other of his modes of manifestation, as Brahma, Vishnu, or Shiva. And as evil is as actual as good, the one is as much a manifestation, or, modus existendi, of the infinite Being as the other. And hence there are evil gods as well as good. In no part of the world has pantheism had such a field for development as in India, and nowhere has it brought forth its legitimate effects in such a portentous amount of evil. Nowhere has polytheism been carried to such revolting extremes.
The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895
Aryan (ar'yan or ar'ian),
a. and n. [Also written Arian, after L. Arianus, belonging to Ariana or Aria, Gr. 'Apeia, 'Apia, or "Apea, the eastern part of ancient Persia, < Skt. Arya, the name by which the Sanskrit-speaking immigrants into India called themselves, in distinction from the aborigines of the country, whom they called Dasyu, Sudra, etc. The ancient Persians gave themselves the same title (OPers. Ariya, Zend Airya) ; and it appears in the name of their country, Airyana or Iran : see Iranic. There are no traces of the word to be found outside of these two races. Its origin is obscure and disputed; there is no probability that it has anything to
do with a root ar, plow.]
I. a. Of or pertaining to the Aryans or to their speech. See II.
“Our faith, our customs, our language, were all but fragments of the primitive Aryan stock common to Rome and Germany”, E. A. Freeman, Amer. Lects., p. 118.
II. n. 1. A member of the eastern or Asiatic division of the Indo-European family, occupying the territories between Mesopotamia and the Bay of Bengal, in the two subdivisions of Persia, or Iran, and India. [This is the older, more scientific, and still widely current use of the word. More recent, but increasingly popular, is the second use.]
2. An Indo-European or Indo-German or Japhetite; a member of that section of the human race which includes the Hindus and Iranians (Persians) as its eastern or Asiatic division, and the Greeks, Italians, Celts, Slavonians, and Germans or Teutons as its western or European division. The languages of all these branches or groups of peoples are akin; that is to say, they are descendants of the original tongue, once spoken in a limited locality by a single community, but where or when it is impossible to say.
Many words still live in India and England that have witnessed the first separation of the northern and southern Aryans, and these are witnesses not to be shaken by any cross-examination. The terms for God, for house, for father, mother, son, daughter, for dog and cow, for heart and tears, for axe and tree, identical in all the Indo-European idioms, are like the watchwords of soldiers. We challenge the seeming stranger; and whether he answer with the lips of a Greek, a German, or an Indian, we recognize him as one of ourselves. There was a time when the ancestors of the Celts, the Germans, the Slavonians, the Greeks and Italians, the Persians and Hindus, were living together beneath the same roof, separate from the ancestors of the Semitic and Turanian races. Max Mulleur.
The races speaking the Indo-European languages; Aryans (which see)
A word sometimes used, especially by German scholars, as equivalent to Indo-European or Aryan.
Hindus or Hindoos
The native race in India descended from the Aryan conquerors.
1. Originally, the land of the Aryans.
2. The language prevelant in Armenia, and belonging to the Aryan family.
A member of a pastoral and predatory Aryan race, which gives its name to Kurdistan, a region of Asia lying partly in Turkey and partly in Persia.
Pertaining to Japheth, one of the sons of Noah; descended, or supposed to be descended from Japheth; Indo-European or Aryan; as the Japhetic nations.
The Indo-European or Aryan family of peoples.
II. n. A member of an ancient nomadic race, found in the steppe regions from the Carpathian mountains eastward. The Scythians have been thought to be of Mongolian or more probably of Aryan descent.
The Century Cyclopedia of Names, 1897Medes
The Medes proper were an Aryan people who claimed relationship to the Aryans of northern India and the Aryan population of Europe, and one of the tribes belonging to them was that of the Persians, who had established themselves further south, on the eastern shores of the Persian Gulf.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 1919Indo-European
I. a. Of India and Europe. A term applied to a family of languages called Aryan and sometimes Japhetic or Sanskritic or by the Germans Indo-Germanic, …
II. n. A member of one of the races speaking the Indo-European languages; an Aryan.
The New Century Dictionary of the English Language, 1942Aryan a. & n.
Applied by some to family of languages (also called Indo-European, Indo-Germanic) that includes Sanskrit, Zend, Persian, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, with their modern representatives, by others only to the Asiatic portion of these; member of A. family, [f. Sk. arya noble (in earlier use a national name comprising worshippers of the gods of the Brahmans) ;
Webster’s New Practical Dictionary, 1957Aryan
I. a. Pertaining to the Aryans or their speech.
II. n. A member of the Asiatic division of the Indo-European family, occupying India and Persia, or of the whole Indo-European family, comprising (chiefly) the Hindus and Iranians (Persians) and the Greeks, Italians, Celts, Slavs, and Teutons, whose languages are all akin; also, the original Aryan speech.
Variant of ARYAN
1. A member of that Caucasian race one branch of which early occupied the Iranian plateau, while another entered India.
2. A member of the people which spoke the parent language from which the Indo-European languages are derived; loosely, an Indo-European.
3. The assumed parent tongue of the Indo-European languages.
Designating or belonging to certain languages constituting a linguistic family comprising the chief languages of Europe together with certain languages of Asia.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, 1968Indo-German
Pertaining to the white race, to which belong the greater part of European nations and those of western Asia. Rice v. Gong Lum, 139 Miss. 760, 104 So. 105, 110.
The term is inapplicable to denote families or stocks inhabiting Europe, and speaking either the so-called Aryan or Semitic languages. Ex parte Shahid, D.C.S.C., 205 F. 812, 814.
Funk and Wagnalls Standard College Dictionary, 1977FREE WHITE PERSONS.
"Free white persons" referred to in Naturalization Act, as amended by Act July 14, 1870 … does not mean Caucasian race, Aryan race, or Indo-European races, nor the mixed Indo-European, Dravidian, Semitic and Mongolian peoples who inhabit Persia.
The doctrines of Arius and his followers, denying that Christ is of one substance with God the Father.
1. A member or descendant of a prehistoric people who spoke Indo-European.
2. In Nazi ideology, a Caucasian gentile, especially one of Nordic stock.
3a. The Indo-Iranian subfamily of Indo-European
3b. Formerly, the parent language of the Indo-European family.
1. Of or pertaining to the Aryans or their languages.
2. In Nazi ideology, of or pertaining to Caucasian gentiles. Also spelled Arian.
In Nazi ideology, to make characteristically Aryan. Also ARAINIZE
Cyclopaedia Of Political Science, Political Economy, And Of The Political History Of The United States, John Joseph Lalor, 1881
The Story of the Law by John Maxcy Zane, 1927
Chapter 3 - The Aryan Law
Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891) wrote a book, “The Secret Doctrine” which in part described the “superior” Aryan race. This book, by the way, was Hitler’s favorite.
“The Aryan races, for instance, now varying from dark brown, almost black, red-brown-yellow, down to the whitest creamy colour, are yet all of one and the same stock – the 5th root-Race – and spring from one single progenitor, which Hindus call Manu.”
Blavatsky itemizes the sub-races of the Aryan 5th root race as:“The intellectual difference between the Aryan and other civilized nations and such savages as the South Sea Islanders, is inexplicable on any other grounds. No amount of culture, nor generations of training amid civilization, could raise such human specimens as the Bushmen, the Veddhas of Ceylon, and some African tribes, to the same intellectual level as the Aryans, the Semites, and the Turanians so called. The 'sacred spark' is missing in them and it is they who are the only inferior races on the globe, now happily – owing to the wise adjustment of nature which ever works in that direction – fast dying out. Verily mankind is 'of one blood,' but not of the same essence. We are the hot-house, artificially quickened plants in nature, having in us a spark, which in them is latent.”
• 1st sub-race – the Hindu
• 2nd sub-race – the Arabian
• 3rd sub-race – the Persian
• 4th sub-race – the Celts
• 5th sub-race – the Teutonic –
• 6th sub-race – the Australo-American (said to evolve in the early 21st century and “possess certain psychic powers, and for this the pituitary body will be developed, thus giving an additional sense, that of cognising astral emotions in the ordinary waking consciousness.”
• 7th sub-race – not yet in existence
THE MASS PSYCHOLOGY OF FASCISM By WILHELM REICH, 1925
This law, they say, also applies to nations. History shows that "blood mixture" of Aryans with "inferior" peoples always results in a decline of culture, in a decline of the physical and mental level of the "higher" race and the beginning of a progressive decay. "The Germanic inhabitant of the American continent, who has remained racially pure and unmixed," says Hitler, "rose to be master of the continent; he will remain the master as long as he does not fall victim to defilement of the blood," that is, as long as he does not mix with non-Germanic peoples. "To bring about such a development means nothing less than sinning against the will of the Eternal Creator" (MEIN KAMPF, p. 286).
According to Hitler, humanity is divided into three kinds of races: those who establish culture, those who develop culture, and those who destroy culture. As founders of culture only the Aryans come into consideration, for they are responsible for "the foundation and the walls of human creation." The Asiatic peoples, like the Japanese and Chinese, have only taken over Aryan cultures and developed them into their own cultures. The Jews, however, are a culture-destroying race. The existence of "lower races" was always the prerequisite of the formation of higher culture. The first human culture rested on the utilization of lower races. At first it was not the horse but the vanquished race which pulled the plow. The Aryans subjugated the lower races and subordinated them to their will. But as soon as the vanquished races learned the language and the way of living of the "masters," and the barrier between master and slave was lowered, the Aryan relinquished the purity of his blood and lost his "paradise."
About the flag, Hitler wrote: In red we see the social idea of the movement, in white the nationalistic idea, in the swastika the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work, which as such always has been and always will be anti-semitic. (MEIN KAMPF, p. 496f.)