Ashkenazi

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notmartha
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Ashkenazi

Post by notmartha » Tue May 15, 2018 11:26 am

BIBLE

Ashkenaz, Hebrew Strong's #813, is a noun found 3 times in the OT, naming the grandson of Japheth and his descendants.
Genesis 10:1-5 - Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.
1 Chronicles 1:6 - And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
Jeremiah 51:27 - Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.
Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, 1871
Ashchenaz -- a descendant of Japheth (Ge 10:3), who gave his name to the sea now called the Black Sea; the region bordering on it is probably here meant, namely, Asia Minor, including places named Ascania in Phrygia and Bithynia. Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor and the neighboring regions, and from these he drew levies in proceeding against Babylon.
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, Walter A. Elwell, General Editor, 1988
Ashkenaz

Gomer's son and Noah's great-grandson in Japheth's line. Mention of the kingdom of Ashkenaz along with Ararat and Minni suggests that he was the ancestor of the Scythians, a people who resided in the Ararat region in Jeremiah's time. An active, war-like people, the Scythians contributed to the unrest of the Assyrian empire and its eventual collapse. The plural term “Ashkenazim,” is now used for the Jews who settled in middle and eastern Europe after the dispersion, in contrast with the Sephardim, who settled in the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal)
The Works of Flavius Josephus, Translated by William Whiston

Chapter 6 - How Every Nation Was Denominated from Their First Inhabitants.

1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the Grecians, are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called. Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants. Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, the son of Japhet, Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are now the Aeolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta. Cethimus possessed the island Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews: and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it has been called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim. And so many nations have the children and grandchildren of Japhet possessed. Now when I have premised somewhat, which perhaps the Greeks do not know, I will return and explain what I have omitted; for such names are pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers; for our own country language does not so pronounce them: but the names in all cases are of one and the same ending; for the name we here pronounce Noeas, is there Noah, and in every case retains the same termination.

Smith’s Bible Dictionary, William Smith, 1884
ASHKENAZ Ash'kenaz (spreading fire), one of the three sons of Gomer, son of Japhet. Gene 10:3 We may probably recognize the tribe of Ashkenaz on the northern shore of Asia Minor in the name of Lake Ascanius, and in Europe in the name Scandia, Scandinavia. Knobel considers that Ashkenaz is to be identified with the German race.
Easton's Bible Dictionary, Matthew George Easton, 1897
Ashkenaz
One of the three sons of Gomer (Gen 10:3), and founder of one of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat must have been in Armenia (Jer 51:27), probably near the Black Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine.
New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, 1996
Ashkenaz

A descendant of Noah through Japheth and Gomer (Gn. 10:3, 1Ch. 1:6). Eponymous ancestor of the successive inhabitants of an area between the Black and Caspian Seas. Ascanius occurs as the name of a Mysian and Phrygian prince, while elsewhere these people are said to live in the district of Ascania. Assyrian texts tell of Askuzai in the NE from c. 720 BC onwards. Later they joined other tribes in the conquest of Babylon reflected in Je. 51:27. The Ashkenaz are to be identified with the Skythai mentioned by Herodotus (1. 103-107; 4. 1).

DEFINITIONS

The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895
Ashkenazic (asg-kë-naz'ik),
Pertaining or relating to the Ashkenazim.
Ashkenazim (ash-kë-naz’im),n. pl. [Heb.]
German-Polish Jews, as distinguished from the Sephardim or Spanish-Portuguese Jews. They form about 90 per cent. Of the Jewish race, and differ from the Sephardim in liturgy and in pronunciation of Hebrew, but not in doctrine.
The Century Cyclopedia of Names, 1897
Ashkenaz (ash-ke-naz').
1. A descendant of Japhet.—
2. A North Asiatic people mentioned in Jer. li. 27 with Minni and Araiat: probably the name of the district south of Lake Urumiyeh and identical with Asgnza (for As<iun:u) in the cuneiform inscriptions.—
3. Applied in rabbinical literature and by the modem Jews to Germany.

So how did the Ashkenazis, who were not Hebrew, and were not Israelites and/or descendants of Judah, and were not inhabitants of Judea, come to be called Jews? The Synagogue of Satan by Andrew Carrington Hitchcock describes it this way:
“In 740 A.D. in a land locked between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, known as Khazaria, a land which today is predominantly occupied by Georgia, but also reaches into Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, and Romania, the modern Jewish race is born. A modern Jewish race that incidentally is not Jewish.

How can this be, you ask? Well at that time, the Khazarian people felt a vulnerable people as they had Muslims one side of them and Christians the other side of them, and thus constantly feared attack from either side. Furthermore, the Khazarian people were of neither faith and instead practiced idol worship, which made them ripe for invasion by a people who wished to convert them to an established faith.

The Khazarian King, King Bulan, decided in order to protect themselves against attack, the Khazarian people must convert to one of these faiths, but which one? If they converted to the Muslim faith they would risk attack by the Christians and if they converted to the Christian faith they would risk attack by the Muslims.

He had an idea. There was another race that he was aware were able to deal with both the Muslims and the Christians either side of him, predominantly in matters of trade. A race which also dealt with Khazarians in the same manner. That race was the Jews. King Bulan decided if he instructed his people to convert to Judaism he could keep both the Muslims and the Christians happy, as they were both already willing to trade with the Jews, so this is what he did.

King Bulan was right. He would live to see his country unconquered, his people convert to Judaism enthusiastically and adopt the principles of the most holy Jewish book, the Talmud. There are many things the king would not live to see, however.

He would not live to see his Asiatic race of converts to Judaism, one day represent 90% of all the Jews on the planet, and call themselves Ashkenazi Jews, when in fact they were not Jews, but simply an Asiatic race of people who converted to the Jewish religion, whilst still continuing to speak the Khazarian language of Yiddish, totally different to the language of Hebrew.

He would not live to see his people turn to the descendants of a man, far more powerful than him, who would be born just over 1,000 years later in Germany, a man named Bauer, who would spawn the Rothschild dynasty.

He would not live to see this dynasty usurp the wealth of the world through deception and intrigue, which they would finance through the vast riches they accumulate as they usurp the wealth of the world by gaining control of the world’s money supply.

He would not live to see his people demand a homeland for themselves in Palestine as their birthright, and ensure every Prime Minister there from its inception in 1948 is an Ashkenazi Jew, even though the true homeland of the Ashkenazi Jews, Khazaria, is his kingdom, some 800 miles away.

And he would not live to see his people fulfill bible prophecy, as the, “Synagogue of Satan.”
Teach me thy way, O LORD, and lead me in a plain path, because of mine enemies. Psalm 27:11
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Firestarter
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Re: Ashkenazi

Post by Firestarter » Wed May 16, 2018 10:21 am

More than 90% of the people that call themselves “Jews” these days - call themselves “Ashkenazi Jews”. There is “evidence” that the Ashkenazi Jews originate from Turkey, which would make them Turks.
Every Israeli Prime Minister (since 1948) was an Ashkenazi “Jew”.

In the 8th century in a land between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (Khazaria), the Khazar tribe not only convert to Judaism, but also started to call themselves “Jew”.
Image

Before the Khazars conquered Khazaria, they came from Turkey – they were a Turkish tribe.
Yiddish is a curious mix of Hebrew, mediaeval German, Slavonic and other elements, written in Hebrew characters. The German elements into Yiddish originate from the east of Germany.

The best source I found on this topic is Arthur Koestler (an Ashkenazi “Jew” himself) "The Thirteenth Tribe" (1976): http://solargeneral.org/wp-content/uplo ... estler.pdf

In Appendix III of Arthur Koestler’s book are references to 2 early sources (around 1100 and 1140 AD) on a letter by Hasdai , written between 954 and 961, and Joseph’s reply that the Khazars are Turks.
Around the year 1100 Rabbi Jehudah ben Barzillai of Barcelona wrote the “Book of the Festivals” — Sefer ha-Ittim — which contains a long reference, including direct quotations, to Joseph’s Reply to Hasdai. The passage in question in Barzillai’s work starts:
We have seen among some other manuscripts the copy of a letter which King Joseph, son of Aaron, the Khazar priest wrote to R. Hasdai bar Isaac.* We do not know if the letter is genuine or not, and if it is a fact that the Khazars, who are Turks, became proselytes.

Koestler decided to go public with his research after losing faith in Zionism, and concluding that the Ashkenazi “Turks” have no right at all to Israel.
Koestler and his wife were suicided in 1983: http://aangirfan.blogspot.nl/2010/02/my ... stler.html

Unfortunately Koestler missed that Khazaria was a part of greater Scythia.
Image


In 2012, Israeli geneticist Eran Elhaik published a DNA study that proves that Khazar ancestry is the largest element in the Ashkenazi gene pool. Bizarrely he analysed the same material used by some Ashkenazi history falsifiers, who claim that Ashkenazis descend from Israel.
Elhaik says he has proved that Ashkenazi “Jews’” roots lie in the Caucasus. They are descendants of the Khazars, a Turkic tribe, who migrated (from Khazaria) to Eastern Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Elhaik compared “genetic signatures” found in Jewish populations with those of modern-day Armenians and Georgians, which he used as a substitute for the “extinct” Khazars.

In 2010, Behar’s and Harry Oster’s team had published a paper based on the same data to conclude that most contemporary Jews (including Ashkenazis) are closely related. Elhaik wrote to Ostrer asking “to see the data used for the study”.
Ostrer replied that the data are not publicly available, and: "Criteria for reviewing include novelty and strength of the proposal, non-overlap with current or planned activities, and non-defamatory nature toward the Jewish people."
That last requirement shows that Ostrer and his collaborators are biased.

Both “scientific” teams have accused each other of being liars.
Michael Hammer from Arizona, one of Behar’s co-authors, said that Elhaik used a “circular argument” to discredit the “Rhineland hypothesis”.
Marcus Feldman used the following “argument” to debunk Elhaik’s conclusions: “He’s just wrong”.
According to Ostrer and other “scientists”, Jews (including Ashkenazis) are genetically more homogeneous than their non-Jewish neighbours. Ostrer points out that reports like that of Elhaik are “dangerous”, as they could expose that (real) Jewish genetic markers are more common among Palestinians, than among Ashkenazis.

Graur defended Elhaik’s and calls his conclusion that Ashkenazi “Jews” originate from Turkey “a very honest estimate”: https://forward.com/news/israel/175912/ ... erce-atta/
(archived here: http://archive.is/uUOE5)


Results
To confirm that the Rhineland and Khazarian hypotheses indeed portray distinct ancestries, we assessed the degree of background admixture between Caucasus and Semitic populations.
We calculated the f3 statistics between Palestinians and six Caucasus and Eurasian populations using African San as an outgroup, for example, f3 (Palestinians, San, Armenians).
The f3 results for Turks (–0.0013), Armenians and Georgians (–0.0019), Lezgins and Adygei (–0.0015), and Russians (–0.0011) indicated a minor but significant admixture (–26<z-score
Because Armenians and Georgians diverged from Turks 600 generations ago (Schonberg et al. 2011), we can assume that the lion’s share of their admixture derived from that ancestry and within the expected levels of background admixture typical to the region rather than recent admixture with Semitic populations. Therefore, similarities between European Jews and Caucasus populations will unlikely be due to a shared Semitic ancestry.
(…)

Our results reveal geographically refined groupings, such as the nearly symmetrical continuous European rim extending from Western to Eastern Europeans, the parallel Caucasus rim, and the Near Eastern populations (supplementary fig. S1, Supplementary Material online) organized in Turk–Iranian and Druze clusters (fig. 3). Middle Eastern populations form a gradient along the diagonal line between Bedouins and Near Eastern populations that resembles their geographical distribution. The remaining Egyptians and the bulk of Saudis distribute separately from Middle Eastern populations.
(...)

Although they cluster with Caucasus populations (fig. 5), Eastern and Central European Jews share a large fraction of Western European and Middle Eastern ancestries, both absent in Caucasus populations. According to the Khazarian hypothesis, the Western European ancestry was imported to Khazaria by Greco–Roman Jews, whereas the Middle Eastern ancestry alludes to the contribution of both early Israelite Proto-Judeans as well as Mesopotamian Jews (Polak 1951; Koestler 1976; Sand 2009). Central and Eastern European Jews differ mostly in their Middle Eastern (30% and 25%, respectively) and Eastern European ancestries (3% and 12%, respectively), probably due to late admixture.

Druze exhibits a large Turk–Iranian ancestry (83%) in accordance with their Near Eastern origin (supplementary fig. S4 Supplementary Material online). Druze and Cypriot appear similar to European Jews in their Middle Eastern and Western European ancestries, though they differ largely in the proportion of Caucasus ancestry. These results can explain the genetic similarity between European Jews, Southern Europeans, and Druze reported in studies that excluded Caucasus populations (Price et al. 2008; Atzmon et al. 2010; Zoossmann-Diskin 2010). Overall, our results portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Near Eastern-Caucasus, Western European, Middle Eastern, and Eastern European ancestries in decreasing proportions.
(...)

When compared with non-Jewish populations, all Jewish communities were significantly (P<0.01, bootstrap t test) distant from Middle Eastern populations and, with the exception of Central European Jews, significantly closer to Caucasus populations (table 1, right panel).
Similar findings were reported by Behar et al. (2010) although they were dismissed as “a bias inherent in our calculations.” However, we found no such bias. The close genetic distance between Central European Jews and Southern European populations can be attributed to a late admixture. The results are consistent with our previous findings in support of the Khazarian hypothesis.

As the only commonality among all Jewish communities is their dissimilarity from Middle Eastern populations (table 1, right panel), grouping different Jewish communities without correcting for their country of origin, as is commonly done, would increase their genetic heterogeneity.
(...)

Discussion
We show that the Khazarian hypothesis offers a comprehensive explanation for the results, including the reported Southern European (Atzmon et al. 2010; Zoossmann-Diskin 2010) and Middle Eastern ancestries (Nebel et al. 2000; Behar et al. 2010). By contrast, the Rhineland hypothesis could not explain the large Caucasus component in European Jews, which is rare in non-Caucasus populations (fig. 5), and the large IBD regions shared between European Jews and Caucasus populations attesting to their common and recent origins.
Our findings thus reject the Rhineland hypothesis and uphold the thesis that Eastern European Jews are Judeo–Khazars in origin. Consequently, we can conclude that the conceptualization of European Jews as a “population isolate,” which is derived from the Rhineland hypothesis, is incorrect and most likely reflects sampling bias in the lack of Caucasus non-Jewish populations in comparative analyses.
(...)

After the decline of their empire, the Judeo–Khazars refugees sought shelter in the emerging Polish kingdom and other Eastern European communities where their expertise in economics, finances, and politics was valued. Prior to their exodus, the Judeo–Khazar population was estimated to be half a million in size, the same as the number of Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian kingdom four centuries later (Polak 1951; Koestler 1976).
Some Judeo–Khazars were left behind, mainly in the Crimea and the Caucasus, where they formed Jewish enclaves surviving into modern times. One of the dynasties of Jewish princes ruled in the 15th century under the tutelage of the Genovese Republic and later of the Crimean Tartars.
Another vestige of the Khazar nation is the “Mountain Jews” in the North Eastern Caucasus (Koestler 1976).

The remarkable close proximity of European Jews and populations residing on the opposite ends of ancient Khazaria, such as Armenians, Georgians, Azerbaijani Jews, and Druze (fig. 3 and supplementary figs. S2, S3, and S5, Supplementary Material online), supports a common Near Eastern–Caucasus ancestry. These findings are not explained by the Rhineland hypothesis and are staggering due to the uneven demographic processes these populations have experienced in the past eight centuries.
(…)

The relatedness between European Jews and Druze reported here and in the literature (Behar et al. 2010) is explained by Druze Turkish–Southern Caucasus origins. Druze migrated to Syria, Lebanon, and eventually to Palestine between the 11th and 13th centuries during the Crusades, a time when the Jewish population in Palestine was at a minimum. The genetic similarity between European Jews and Druze therefore supports the Khazarian hypothesis and should not be confused with a Semitic origin, which can be easily distinguished from the non-Semitic origin (fig. 5).
We emphasize that testing the Middle Eastern origin of European Jews can only be done with indigenous Middle Eastern groups. Overall, the similarity between European Jews and Caucasus populations underscores the genetic continuity that exists among Eurasian Jewish and non-Jewish Caucasus populations.
(...)

Although medical studies were not conducted using Caucasus and Near Eastern populations to the same extent as with European Jews, many diseases found in European Jews are also found in their ancestral groups in the Caucasus (e.g., cystic fibrosis and a-thalassemia), the Near East (e.g., factor XI deficiency, type II), and Southern Europe (e.g., nonsyndromic recessive deafness) (Ostrer 2001), attesting to their complex multiorigins.
Eran Elhaik – The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses (2012): http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/e ... 9.full.pdf


According to Eran Elhaik, the word Ashkenaz comes from the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian name for the Scythians - Ashguza. He places the original homeland of the Ashkenazi Jews in north-east Turkey and a region to the north of the Black sea.

Three still-surviving Turkish villages – Iskenaz, Eskenaz and Ashanaz – were part of the original Ashkenazic homeland.
Over 90% of the ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews are Greeks, Iranians and others who colonised what is now northern Turkey more than 2000 years ago and were converted to Judaism. Around the first few centuries AD, the Persian Empire was home to the world’s largest Jewish communities.

From the 690s AD onwards, because of anti-Jewish persecution by the Christian Byzantine Empire, large numbers of Jews fled across the Black Sea to a more friendly state – the Turkic-ruled Khazar Empire with its large Slav and other populations.
When the Khazar Empire declined in or around the 11th century, some of the Jewish population migrated west into Central Europe.
The genetic modelling was based on DNA from 367 Jews of northern and eastern European origin and over 600 non-Jewish people mainly from Europe and western Asia: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/scien ... 92076.html
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notmartha
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Re: Ashkenazi

Post by notmartha » Thu May 17, 2018 12:59 pm

Firestarter wrote:
Wed May 16, 2018 10:21 am
There is “evidence” that the Ashkenazi Jews originate from Turkey, which would make them Turks.
The Ashkenazi tribe, descended from Noah's son Japheth, who, after the deluge, came out of the ark in Ararat, which is now in eastern Turkey. So technically, all descendants of Noah originated from Turkey, but they are not all "Turks".

When the Lord sent out the nations, the Japhethites inhabited "the isles of the Gentiles."

Genesis 10:1-5 (KJV)
1 Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.
2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.
3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.
5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (1871)
describes "the isles of the Gentiles" as:


"a phrase by which the Hebrews described all countries which were accessible by sea (Isa 11:11 Isa 20:6 Jer 25:22). Such in relation to them were the countries of Europe, the peninsula of Lesser Asia, and the region lying on the east of the Euxine. Accordingly, it was in these quarters the early descendants of Japheth had their settlements."

Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897) describes "the isles of the Gentiles" as:

"The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the sea" (Isa 11:11), or the "isles of the Gentiles" (Gen 10:5), and sometimes simply "isles" (Ps 72:10; Ezek 26:15, 18; Ezek 27:3, 35; Dan 11:18).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, James Orr (1915) defines "the isles of the Gentiles" as:

"the territories of the sons of Japheth" and "the coasts of the Western Mediterranean, with their islands."

Here are two maps showing the dispersion of the Ashkenazi:

Image
Image

The words "Turkey" or "Asia Minor" do not appear in the KJV Old Testament, but these areas do fit the definition of "the isles of the Gentiles."

Another good book about Ashkenazis, by an Ashkenazi Jew, is:

The Life of an American Jew in Racist-Marxist Israel by Jack Bernstein
Teach me thy way, O LORD, and lead me in a plain path, because of mine enemies. Psalm 27:11
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