Protected Class

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notmartha
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Protected Class

Post by notmartha » Thu Jun 14, 2018 7:07 am

BIBLE

While the words “protect(ed)” and/or “class(es)” are not specifically found in the KJV, it is expounded in other terms that those who believe in, trust and obey God are considered a special class of people that receive His special protection.

The Apocalypse, Joseph Seiss
There [Revelations 7:4] the 144,000 are presented as a select and special class of God's servants, chosen, marked, and set apart as none else, sealed by an angel with the seal of the living God. So with the 144,000 here [Revelations 14:1] there is a special and peculiar isolation from all other classes of the saved. They are distinct from the Living Ones, from the Elders, and from the multitude which no man can number; and they are so unique and separate in their history, experience, and reward, that no one is able to learn or sing the song which they sing. Those in Chapter VII were marked in their forehead with the seal of the living God; these have that mark, even "the Lamb's name and His Father's name written on their foreheads.”
DEFINITIONS

Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, 1856
Class

1. The order according to which are arranged or distributed, or are supposed to be arranged or distributed, divers persons or things; thus we say, a class of legatees.

2. When a legacy is given to a class of individuals, all who answer the description at the time the will takes effect, are entitled; and though the expression be in the plural, yet if there be but one, he shall take the whole. 3 M'Cord, Ch. R. 440.

3. When a bond is given to a class of persons, it is good, and all composing that class are entitled to sue upon it; but if the obligor be a member of such class, the bond is void, because a man cannot be obligor and obligee at the same time; as, if a bond be given to the justices of the county court, and at the time the obligor is himself one of said justices. 3 Dev. 284, 287,289; 4 Dev. 882.

4. When a charge is made against a class of society, a profession, an order or body of men, and cannot possibly import a personal application to private injury, no action lies; but if any one of the class have sustained special damages inconsequence of such charge, he may maintain an action. 17 Wend. 52, 23, 186. See 12 John. 475. When the charge is against one of a class, without designating which, no action lies; as, where three persons had been examined as witnesses, and the defendant said in addressing himself to them, "one of you three is perjured." 1 Roll. Ab. 81; Cro. Jac. 107; 16 Pick. 132.
Protected Class – no entry

Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1891 and 2nd Edition, 1910
Class.

The order or rank according to which persons or things are arranged or as sorted. Also a group of persons or things, taken collectively, having certain qualities in common, and constituting a unit for certain purposes; a. g., a class of legatees.
Protected Class – no entry

Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, 1968
Class.

The order or rank according to which persons or things are arranged or assorted. Also a body of persons uncertain in number, a group of persons, things, qualities, or activities, having common characteristics or attributes.
Protected Class – no entry

Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1979
Class.

A group of persons, things, qualities, or activities, having common characteristics or attributes. In re Kanawha Val. Bank, 1 44 W.Va. 346, 1 09 S.E.2d 649, 670. The order or rank according to which persons or things are arranged or assorted. Also a body of persons uncertain in number.
Protected Class – no entry

Black’s Law Dictionary, 6th Edition, 1991
Class.

A group of persons, things, qualities, or activities, having common characteristics or attributes. In re Kanawha Val. Bank, 1 44 W.Va. 346, 1 09 S.E.2d 649, 670. The order or rank according to which persons or things are arranged or assorted.
Protected Class

Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, one of the groups the law sought to protect, including groups based on race, sex, national origin, and religion.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th Edition, 1999
Protected Class

A class of people who benefit from protection by statute, such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, or religion.
WEX Legal Dictionary
Protected class

A class of individuals to whom Congress or a state legislature has given legal protection against discrimination or retaliation.
The Law Dictionary

https://dictionary.thelaw.com/protected-class/
Protected class

A class or group of people who are protected against discrimination as a result of being a member of a protected class. Federal law prohibits discriminatory conduct with regard to the following protected classes: race, color, creed, religion national origin, age (40 or over), gender, disability and status of citizenship.
Merriam-Webster, 2018
Protected class

a group of people intended by a legislature to benefit from the protection of a statute

24 CFR § 5.152
Protected class

Protected class means a group of persons who have the same protected characteristic; e.g., a group of persons who are of the same race are a protected class. Similarly, a person who has a mobility disability is a member of the protected class of persons with disabilities and a member of the protected class of persons with mobility disabilities.
Protected characteristics

Protected characteristics are race, color, religion, sex, familial status, national origin, having a disability, and having a type of disability.
MISCELLANEOUS

H.R.2282 - Equality Act
https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-con ... -bill/2282

There is currently a Bill in the House to amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to include sex, sexual orientation, and gender identity among the “protected classes.”

The bill defines:
• "sex" to include a sex stereotype, sexual orientation or gender identity, and pregnancy, childbirth, or a related medical condition;
• "sexual orientation" as homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality; and
• "gender identity" as gender-related identity, appearance, mannerisms, or characteristics, regardless of the individual's designated sex at birth.

The bill expands the categories of public accommodations to include places or establishments that provide exhibitions, recreation, exercise, amusement, gatherings, or displays; goods, services, or programs, including a store, a shopping center, an online retailer or service provider, a salon, a bank, a gas station, a food bank, a service or care center, a shelter, a travel agency, a funeral parlor, or a health care, accounting, or legal service; or transportation services.

The bill even goes as far as saying that Religious Freedom does not trump these “protected classes” and cannot be used as a defense for denying services in spite of the fact that religion is enumerated with the other “protected classes.” I guess that while all classes have “equal protection under the law” some are more equal than others.

Masterpiece Cakeshop, LTD. v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission
Nevertheless, while those religious and philosophical objections are protected, it is a general rule that such objections do not allow business owners and other actors in the economy and in society to deny protected persons equal access to goods and services under a neutral and generally applicable public accommodations law.
“It is a general rule that [religious and philosophical] objections do not allow business owners and other actors in the economy and in society to deny protected persons equal access to goods and services under a neutral and generally applicable public accommodations law.”
...a vendor cannot escape a public accommodations law because his religion disapproves selling a product to a group of customers, whether defined by sexual orientation, race, sex, or other protected trait.
The Commission cannot slide up and down the mens rea scale, picking a mental state standard to suit its tastes depending on its sympathies. Either actual proof of intent to discriminate on the basis of membership in a protected class is required (as the Commission held in Mr. Jack’s case), or it is sufficient to “presume” such intent from the knowing failure to serve someone in a protected class (as the Commission held in Mr. Phillips’s case)
QUOTES

Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 22, December 14, 1787
Government is instituted for the common good; for the protection, safety, prosperity, and happiness of the people; and not for profit, honor, or private interest of any one man, family, or class of men; therefore, the people alone have an incontestable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to institute government; and to reform, alter, or totally change the same, when their protection, safety, prosperity, and happiness require it.
Benjamin Disraeli
To tax the community for the advantage of a class is not protection, it is plunder.
Ex parte Milligan 71 U.S. 2 (1866) DAVIS, J., Opinion of the Court
The Constitution of the United States is a law for rulers and people, equally in war and in peace, and covers with the shield of its protection all classes of men, at all times, and under all circumstances. No doctrine, involving more pernicious consequences, was ever invented by the wit of man than that any of its provisions can be suspended during any of the great exigencies of government. Such a doctrine leads directly to anarchy or despotism, but the theory of necessity on which it is based is false; for the government, within the Constitution,
has all the powers granted to it, which are necessary to preserve its existence; as has been happily proved by the result of the great effort to throw off its just authority.
Frederick Douglass:
I know no class of my fellowmen, however just, enlightened, and humane, which can be wisely and safely trusted absolutely with the liberties of any other class.
Booker T. Washington:
There is a class of colored people who make a business of keeping the troubles, the wrongs, and the hardships of the Negro race before the public. Some of these people do not want the Negro to lose his grievances, because they do not want to lose their jobs. There is a certain class of race-problem solvers who don't want the patient to get well.
John Marshall Harlan:
In view of the Constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens. There is no caste here. Our Constitution is colorblind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.
Lysander Spooner:
The ostensible supporters of the Constitution, like the ostensible supporters of most other governments, are made up of three classes, viz.: 1. Knaves, a numerous and active class, who see in the government an instrument which they can use for their own aggrandizement or wealth. 2. Dupes—a large class, no doubt—each of whom, because he is allowed one voice out of millions in deciding what he may do with his own person and his own property, and because he is permitted to have the same voice in robbing, enslaving, and murdering others, that others have in robbing, enslaving, and murdering himself, is stupid enough to imagine that he is a “free man,” a “sovereign”; that this is “a free government”; “a government of equal rights,” “the best government on earth,” and such like absurdities. 3. A class who have some appreciation of the evils of government, but either do not see how to get rid of them, or do not choose to so far sacrifice their private interests as to give themselves seriously and earnestly to the work of making a change.
P. J. O'Rourke:
The main reason to be opposed to political control of smoking is to keep power --even the smallest and silliest kind of power -- out of the hands of ... members of a dangerous class --the class that knows what´s good for us better than we do.
Lord Acton:
The danger is not that a particular class is unfit to govern. Every class is unfit to govern.
Whenever a single definite object is made the supreme end of the State, be it the advantage of a class, the safety of the power of the country, the greatest happiness of the greatest number, or the support of any speculative idea, the State becomes for the time inevitably absolute.
Frederic Bastiat:
Men naturally rebel against the injustice of which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by law for the profit of those who make the law, all the plundered classes try somehow to enter -- by peaceful or revolutionary means -- into the making of laws. According to their degree of enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in it.
Teach me thy way, O LORD, and lead me in a plain path, because of mine enemies. Psalm 27:11
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