See also THIS THREAD with discussions about various Conspiracies.
Word Studies in the New Testament, Marvin Vincent
See also Ben Williams' excellent newsletter "How To Believe In Conspiracy Theories"Conspiracy (συνωμοσίαν)
Lit., swearing together; conjuration. According to its etymology, conspiracy is a breathing or blowing together (Latin, conspirare). Hence, of concerted thought and action.
Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828
CONSPIRE, verb intransitive [Latin , to plot; to breathe. But the primary sense is to throw, to wind; hence spira, a fold, circle, wreath or band; and the sense of the verb is, to breathe together, or more probably, to wind or band together.]
1. To agree, by oath, covenant or otherwise, to commit a crime; to plot; to hatch treason.
The servants of Ammon conspired against him, and slew the king in his own house. 2 Kings 21:23.
They conspired against Joseph to slay him. Genesis 37:18.
2. In law, to agree falsely and maliciously to indict an innocent person of felony.
3. To agree; to concur to one end.
The press, the pulpit, and the stage, conspire to censure and expose our age.
All things conspire to make us prosperous.
CONSPIRACY, noun [Latin See Conspire.]
1. A combination of men for an evil purpose; an agreement between two or more persons, to commit some crime in concert; particularly, a combination to commit treason, or excite sedition or insurrection against the government of a state; a plot; as a conspiracy against the life of a king; a conspiracy against the government.
More than forty had made this conspiracy Acts 23:13.
2. In law, an agreement between two or more persons, falsely and maliciously to indict, or procure to be indicted, an innocent person of felony.
3. A concurrence; a general tendency of two or more causes to one event.
Bouvier’s Dictionary of Law, 1856CONSPIRATOR, noun
1. One who conspires; one who engages in a plot to commit a crime, particularly treason.
2. In law, one who agrees with another falsely and maliciously to indict an innocent person of felony. By the British statute, a conspirator is defined to be one who binds himself by oath, covenant, or other alliance, to assist another falsely and maliciously to indict a person, or falsely to maintain pleas.
CONSPIRACY, crim. law, torts.
1. An agreement between two or more persons to do an unlawful act, or an act which may become by the combination injurious to others. Formerly this offence was much more circumscribed in its meaning than it is now. Lord Coke describes it as "a consultation or agreement between two or more to appeal or indict an innocent person falsely and maliciously, whom accordingly they cause to be indicted or appealed and afterwards the party is acquitted by the verdict of twelve men."
2. The crime of conspiracy, according to its modern interpretation, may be of two kinds, namely, conspiracies against the public, or such as endanger the public health, violate public morals, insult public justice, destroy the public peace, or affect public trade or business.
3. To remedy these evils the guilty persons may be indicted in the name of the commonwealth. Conspiracies against individuals are such as have a tendency to injure them in their persons, reputation, or property. The remedy in these cases is either by indictment or by a civil action.
4. In order to reader the offence complete, there is no occasion that any act should be done in pursuance of the unlawful agreement entered into between the parties, or that any one should have been defrauded or injured by it. The conspiracy is the gist of the crane.
5. By the laws of the United State's, a willful and corrupt conspiracy to cast away, burn or otherwise destroy any ship or vessel, with intent to injure any underwriter thereon, or the goods on board thereof, or any lender of money on such vessel, on bottomry or respondentia, is, by the laws of the United States, made felony, and the offender punishable by fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, and by imprisonment and confinement at hard labor, not exceeding ten years.
6. By the Revised Statutes of New York, vol. 2, p. 691, 692, it is enacted, that if any two or more persons shall conspire, either:
- 1. To commit any offence; or,
- 2. Falsely and maliciously to indict another for any offence; or,
- 3. Falsely to move or maintain any suit; or,
- 4. To cheat and defraud any person of any property, by any means which are in themselves criminal; or,
- 5. To cheat and defraud any person of any property, by means which, if executed, would amount to a cheat, or to obtaining property by false pretences; or,
- 6. To commit any act injurious to the public health, to public morals, or to trade and commerce, or for the perversion or obstruction of justice, or the due administration of the laws;
they shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. No other conspiracies are there punishable criminally. And no agreement, except to commit a felony upon the person of another, or to commit arson or burglary, shall be deemed a conspiracy, unless some act besides such agreement be done to effect the object thereof, by one or more of the parties to such agreement.
7. When a felony has been committed in pursuance of a conspiracy, the latter, which is only a misdemeanor, is merged in the former; but when a misdemeanor only has been committed in pursuance of such conspiracy, the two crimes being of equal degree, there can be no legal technical merger.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1891CONSPIRATORS. Persons guilty of a conspiracy. See Conspiracy.
In criminal law. A combination or confederacy between two or more persons formed for the purpose of committing, by their joint efforts, some unlawful or criminal act, or some act which is innocent in itself, but becomes unlawful when done by the concerted action of the conspirators, or for the purpose of using criminal or unlawful means to the commission of an act not in itself unlawful.
The agreement or engagement of persons to co-operate in accomplishing some unlawful purpose, or some purpose which may not be unlawful, by unlawful means. 48 Me.218.
Conspiracy is a consultation or agreement between two or more persons, either falsely to accuse another of a crime punishable by law; or wrongfully to injure or prejudice a third person, or any body of men, in any manner; or to commit any offense punishable by law; or to do any act with intent to prevent the course of justice; or to effect a legal purpose with a corrupt intent, or by improper means. Hawk. P. C. c. 72, 5 2; Archb. Crim. Pl. 390, adding also combinations by journeymen to raise wages. 6 Ala. 765.
The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895CONSPIRATORS.
Persons guilty of a conspiracy.
Those who bind themselves by oath, covenant, or other alliance that each of them shall aid the other falsely and maliciously to indict persons; or falsely to move and maintain pleas, etc. 33 Edw. I. St. 2. Besides these, there are conspirators in treasonable purposes; as for plotting against the government. Wharton.
1. A combination of persons for an evil purpose ; an agreement between two or more persons to commit in concert something reprehensible, injurious, or illegal; particularly, a combination to commit treason, or excite sedition or insurrection; a plot; concerted treason, in legal usage a conspiracy is a combination of two or more persons, by some concerted action, to accomplish some criminal or unlawful purpose, or to accomplish some purpose not in itself criminal or unlawful by criminal or unlawful means. The term was formerly used in English law more specifically to designate an agreement between two or more persons falsely and maliciously to indict, or procure to be indicted, an innocent person of felony.
Hence— 2. Any concurrence in action; combination in bringing al)out a given result.
1. Literally, to breathe together (with); breathe in unison or accord, as in singing. [Rare.] [A modern use imitating the literal Latin sense.]
2. To agree by oath, covenant, or otherwise to commit a reprehensible or illegal act ; engage in a conspiracy ; plot; especially, hatch treason.
3. Figuratively, to concur to one end ; act in unison ; contribute jointly to a certain result
Black’s Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1910
In criminal law. A combination or confederacy between two or more persons formed for the purpose of committing, by their joint efforts, some unlawful or criminal act, or some act which Is Innocent In Itself, but becomes unlawful when done by the concerted action of the conspirators, or for the purpose of using criminal or unlawful means to the commission of an act not In Itself unlawful.
Conspiracy is a consultation or agreement between two or more persons, either falsely to accuse another of a crime punishable by law ; or wrongfully to injure or prejudice a third person, or any body of men, in any manner ; or to commit any offense punishable by law ; or to do any act with intent to prevent the course of justice ; or to effect a legal purpose with a corrupt intent, or by improper means… adding also combinations by journeymen to raise wages.
Civil and criminal. The term "civil" is used to designate a conspiracy which will furnish ground for a civil action, as where, in carrying out the design of the conspirators, overt acts are done causing legal damage, the person injured has a right of action. It is said that the gist of civil conspiracy is the injury or damage. While criminal conspiracy does not require such overt acts, yet, so far as the rights and remedies are concerned, all criminal conspiracies are embraced within the civil conspiracies.
An ancient writ that lay against conspirators.
Persons guilty of a conspiracy.
Those who bind themselves by oath, covenant, or other alliance that each of them shall aid the other falsely and maliciously to indict persons-; or falsely to move and maintain pleas, etc.
Besides these, there are conspirators in treasonable purposes; as for plotting against the government
Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1979
A combination or confederacy between two or more persons formed for the purpose of committing, by their joint efforts, some unlawful or criminal act, or some act which is lawful in itself, but becomes unlawful when done by the concerted action of the conspirators, or for the purpose of using criminal or unlawful means to the commission of an act not in itself unlawful.
A person is guilty of conspiracy with another person or persons to commit a crime if with the purpose of promoting or facilitating its commission he:
(a) agrees with such other person or persons that they or one or more of them will engage in conduct which constitutes such crime or an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime; or
(b) agrees to aid such other person or persons in the planning or commission of such crime or of an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime. Model Penal Code, § 5.03.
Crime of conspiracy is distinct from the crime contemplated by the conspiracy (target crime),
Some jurisdictions do not require an overt act as an element of the crime, e.g. Com. v. Harris, 232 Mass. 588, 122 N.E. 749.
A conspiracy may be a continuing one; actors may drop out, and others drop in; the details of operation may change from time to time; the members need not know each other or the part played by others; a member need not know all the details of the plan or the operations; he must, however, know the purpose of the conspiracy and agree to become a party to a plan to effectuate that purpose. Craig v. U. S., C.C. A. Cal. , 8 1 F.2d 8 1 6, 822.
See also Combination in restraint of trade; Confederacy; Wharton Rule.
Civil conspiracy. The essence of a "civil conspiracy" is a concert or combination to defraud or cause other injury to person or property, which results in damage to the person or property of plaintiff. See also Civil conspiracy.
Overthrow of government. See Sedition.
Seditions conspiracy. See Sedition.
Conspiracy in restraint of trade. Term which describes all forms of illegal agreements such as boycotts, price fixing, etc., which have as their object interference with free flow of commerce and trade. See Clayton Acts; Sherman Antitrust Act.
Conspirators. Persons partaking in conspiracy. See Conspiracy.
WEX Law DictionaryConspire.
To engage in conspiracy. Term carries with it the idea of agreement, concurrence and combination, and hence is inapplicable to a single person or thing, and one cannot agree or conspire with another who does not agree or conspire with him. See Conspiracy.
An agreement between two or more people to commit an illegal act, along with an intent to achieve the agreement's goal. Most U.S. jurisdictions also require an overt act toward furthering the agreement. An overt act is a statutory requirement, not a constitutional one. See Whitfield v. United States, 453 U.S. 209 (2005). The illegal act is the conspiracy's "target offense."
Conspiracy generally carries a penalty on its own. In addition, conspiracies allow for derivative liability where conspirators can also be punished for the illegal acts carried out by other members, even if they were not directly involved. Thus, where one or more members of the conspiracy committed illegal acts to further the conspiracy's goals, all members of the conspiracy may be held accountable for those acts.
Where no one has actually committed a criminal act, the punishment varies. Some conspiracy statutes assign the same punishment for conspiracy as for the target offense. Others impose lesser penalties.
Conspiracy applies to both civil and criminal offenses. For example, you may conspire to commit murder, or conspire to commit fraud.
A person that is a party to a conspiracy -- that is, someone that enters into an agreement to commit illegal acts, or to commit legal acts using illegal means.
18 U.S. Code § 371 - Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud United States
QUOTESIf two or more persons conspire either to commit any offense against the United States, or to defraud the United States, or any agency thereof in any manner or for any purpose, and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.
If, however, the offense, the commission of which is the object of the conspiracy, is a misdemeanor only, the punishment for such conspiracy shall not exceed the maximum punishment provided for such misdemeanor.
Thomas Sowell:The biggest conspiracy has always been the fact that there is no conspiracy. Nobody's out to get you. Nobody gives a shit whether you live or die. There, you feel better now?
H. L. Mencken:One of the reasons for conspiracy theories is an assumption that people in high places always know what they are doing. When they do something that makes no sense, devious reasons are imagined by conspiracy theorists, when in fact it may be due to plain old ignorance and incompetence.
John Haynes Holmes:Governments, whatever their pretensions otherwise, try to preserve themselves by holding the individual down ... Government itself, indeed, may be reasonably defined as a conspiracy against him. Its one permanent aim, whatever its form, is to hobble him sufficiently to maintain itself.
J. Edgar Hoover:Society is always engaged in a vast conspiracy to preserve itself -- at the expense of the new demands of each new generation.
James Madison:We must now face the harsh truth that the objectives of communism are being steadily advanced because many of us do not recognize the means used to advance them. ... The individual is handicapped by coming face to face with a Conspiracy so monstrous he cannot believe it exists. The American mind simply has not come to a realization of the evil which has been introduced into our midst.
George W. Bush:The strongest passions and most dangerous weaknesses of the human breast; ambition, avarice, vanity, the honorable or venal love of fame, are all in conspiracy against the desire and duty of peace.
Sir Winston Churchill:Let us never tolerate outrageous conspiracy theories concerning the attacks of September the 11th; malicious lies that attempt to shift the blame away from the terrorists, themselves, away from the guilty.
Thomas More:From the days of Spartacus, Weishophf, Karl Marx, Trotski, Belacoon, Rosa Luxenburg, and Ema Goldman, this world conspiracy has been steadily growing. This conspiracy played a definite recognizable role in the tragedy of the French revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the 19th Century. And now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their head and have become the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.
Larry P. McDonald:The wealthy, not only by private fraud but also by common laws, do every day pluck and snatch away from the people some part of their daily living. Therefore, when I consider and weigh in my mind these commonwealths which nowadays do flourish, I perceive nothing but a certain conspiracy of rich men in procuring their own commodities under the name and authority of the commonwealth. They invent and devise all means and crafts, first how to keep safely without fear of losing that which they have unjustly gathered together, and next how to hire and abuse the work and labor of the people for as little money and effort as possible.
Lysander Spooner:The drive of the Rockefellers and their allies is to create a one-world government combining supercapitalism and Communism under the same tent, all under their control. … Do I mean conspiracy? Yes I do. I am convinced there is such a plot, international in scope, generations old in planning, and incredibly evil in intent.
Charley Reese:No attempt or pretence, that was ever carried into practical operation amongst civilized men -- unless possibly the pretence of a “Divine Right,” on the part of some, to govern and enslave others -- embodied so much of shameless absurdity, falsehood, impudence, robbery, usurpation, tyranny, and villany of every kind, as the attempt or pretence of establishing a government by consent, and getting the actual consent of only so many as may be necessary to keep the rest in subjection by force. Such a government is a mere conspiracy of the strong against the weak. It no more rests on consent than does the worst government on earth.
Aristotle:Congress is extraordinarily reluctant to inject itself into foreign policy. It has dumped entirely its constitutional duty for money onto a central bank, and for trade, onto the executive branch. It seems to never know what the CIA and other intelligence agencies are doing. Like the Romans, they no longer talk of the republic or liberty. And like the Romans, the American people, or most of them anyway, don’t seem to care. ...
Like the Romans, we no longer have a citizen army but professional legions, and whether they wear jackboots or not, some federal officers seem to regard Americans with about the same compassion as the Praetorian Guard had for the plebes. As in Rome, the air is full of suspicion, intrigues and conspiracies, real or imagined, and the air reeks of greed and opportunism. As those on the Tiber, the rulers on the Potomac have grown suspicious of the people, don’t trust them and, in some cases fear them. And, as in Rome, they grovel in luxury while taking 40 cents on the dollar out of the sweat of working people to pay for corn and circuses to keep the mob satisfied.
For Further Reading:The three aims of the tyrant are, one, the humiliation of his subjects; he knows that a mean-spirited man will not conspire against anybody; two, the creation of mistrust among them; for a tyrant is not to be overthrown until men begin to have confidence in one another -- and this is the reason why tyrants are at war with the good; they are under the idea that their power is endangered by them, not only because they will not be ruled despotically, but also because they are too loyal to one another and to other men, and do not inform against one another or against other men -- three, the tyrant desires that all his subjects shall be incapable of action, for no one attempts what is impossible and they will not attempt to overthrow a tyranny if they are powerless.
None Dare Call it Conspiracy by Gary Allen as well as his other books about Conspiracy Facts.
Texe Marrs writes many books about what he calls "Conspiracy Science." They include:
Conspiracy World—A Truthteller’s Compendium of Eye-Opening Revelations and Forbidden Knowledge
Dark Secrets of the New Age
Mystery Mark of the New Age
New Age Cults And Religions
Ravaged by the New Age
Conspiracy of the Six-Pointed Star
Circle of Intrigue