Judgment

Comprehending laws and contracts is impossible, unless we first learn the meaning of the words and phrases they contain.

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Judgment

Post by notmartha » Mon Sep 10, 2018 1:26 pm

BIBLE

The word “judgment(s)” as found in the OT of the KJV:
Judgment in OT of KJV.pdf
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The word “judgment(s)” as found in the NT of the KJV:
Judgment in NT of KJV.pdf
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Ben Williams’ Straight Talk Newsletter, “Judgment”:

http://benwilliamslibrary.com/pdfs/st18-7&8.pdf


The Companion Bible, E.W. Bullinger, c. 1908
177. THE SYNONYMOUS WORDS FOR "JUDGMENT".
1. aistesis = perception. Occurs only in Phil. 1:9, where A.V. reads "sense" in the margin and R.V. reads "discernment".
2. gnome, from ginosko (Ap. 132, ii) = opinion, the result of knowledge. Occurs nine times: translated "purposed" in Acts 20:3; "judgment" in 1Cor. 1:10; 7:25, 40; "advice" in 2Cor. 8:10; "mind" in Philem. 14; Rev. 17:13; "will" in Rev. 17:17; and (with a verb) "agree" in Rev. 17:17.
3. dikatoma = that which is deemed right or just (dikaios). Occurs ten times: translated "judgment" in Rom. 1:32; Rev. 15:4; elsewhere "ordinance", righteousness", and once "justification" (Rom. 5:16)
4. dike = right, as established custom or usage, hence a suit at law, penalty, vengeance. Occurs four times: translated "judgment" in Acts 25:15; "vengeance" in Acts 28:4; Jude 7; and "punished" in 2Thess. 1:9 (see R.V.)
5. hemera = day, rendered "judgment" in 1Cor. 4:3 (see A.V. marg.).
6. krima = This and the two following words are akin to the verb krino (Ap. 122. 1). Krima occurs twenty-eight times, and is rendered "judgment", "damnation", or "condemnation", save in Luke 24:20; 1Cor. 6:7; and Rev. 18:20, where see notes.
7. krisis = a separating, a judgment, especially of judicial proceedings. Our English word "crisis" means a turning point. The word occurs forty-eight times: translated "damnation" (Matt. 23:33; Mark 3:29; John 5:29), "condemnation" (John 3:19; 5:24), "accusation" (2Pet. 2:11; Jude 9), and everywhere else "judgment".
8. kriterion = the place, or means of judgment. It occurs three times (1Cor. 6:2, 4; James 2:6) This word we have also adopted into the English language as a "standard" for judging.
Smith’s Bible Dictionary, William Smith, 1884
JUDGMENT HALL

The word prætorium is so translated five times in the Authorized Version of the New Testament, and in those five passages it denotes two different places.

1. In John 18:28, 33; 19:9 it is the residence which Pilate occupied when he visited Jerusalem. The site of Pilate's prætorium in Jerusalem has given rise to much dispute, some supposing it to be the palace of King Heod, others the tower of Antonia; but it was probably the latter, which was then and long afterward the citadel of Jerusalem.

2. In Acts 23:35 Herod's judgment hall or prætorium in Cæsarea was doubtless a part of that magnificent range of buildings the erection of which by King Herod is described in Josephus. The word "palace," or "Cæsar's court." in the Authorized Version of Phil 1:13 is a translation of the same word prætorium. It may here have denoted the quarter of that detachment of the prætorian guards which was in immediate attendance upon the emperor, and had barracks in Mount Palatine at Rome.
Easton's Bible Dictionary, Matthew George Easton, 1897
Judgment seat

(Mat 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence. (See GABBATHA.)
Judgment hall

Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, 33; John 19:9; Mat 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (Compare Acts 23:35). Pilate's official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress of Antonia.
The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered together in the palace court.
Judgment, The final

The sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Mat 25; Rom 14:10, 11; 2Co 5:10; 2Th 1:7-10).
The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects."
The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Mat 25:31-46; 1Co 15:51, 52; Rev 20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2Pe 2:4; Jude 1:6).

The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47, 48; Rom 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Rom 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Mat 11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (1Co 4:5; Luke 8:17; Luke 12:2, 3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.

The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb 9:27; Acts 17:31).As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain (Eccl 11:9), universal (2Co 5:10), righteous (Rom 2:5), decisive (1Co 15:52), and eternal as to its consequences (Heb 6:2), let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."
Judgments of God

(1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Ps 110:5; Ps 36:6).
(2.) The revelations of his will (Ex 21:1; Deut 6:20; Ps 119:7-175).
(3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex 6:6; Ex 12:12; Ezek 25:11; Rev 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen 7; Gen 19:24, 25; Jdg 1:6, 7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.

DEFINITIONS

Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828
JUDG'MENT, noun The act of judging; the act or process of the mind in comparing its ideas, to find their agreement or disagreement, and to ascertain truth; or the process of examining facts and arguments, to ascertain propriety and justice; or the process of examining the relations between one proposition and another.
1. The faculty of the mind by which man is enabled to compare ideas and ascertain the relations of terms and propositions; as a man of clear judgment or sound judgment The judgment may be biased by prejudice. judgment supplies the want of certain knowledge.
2. The determination of the mind, formed from comparing the relations of ideas, or the comparison of facts and arguments. In the formation of our judgments, we should be careful to weigh and compare all the facts connected with the subject.
3. In law, the sentence of doom pronounced in any cause, civil or criminal, by the judge or court by which it is tried. judgment may be rendered on demurrer, on a verdict, on a confession or default, or on a non-suit. judgment though pronounced by the judge or court, is properly the determination or sentence of the law. A pardon may be pleaded in arrest of judgment
4. The right or power of passing sentence.
5. Determination; decision.
Let reason govern us in the formation of our judgment of things proposed to our inquiry.
6. Opinion; notion.
She, in my judgment was as fair as you.
7. In Scripture, the spirit of wisdom and prudence, enabling a person to discern right and wrong, good and evil.
Give the king thy judgments, O God. Psalms 72:2.
8. A remarkable punishment; an extraordinary calamity inflicted by God on sinners.
Judgments are prepared for scorners. Proverbs 19:28. Isaiah 26:8.
9. The spiritual government of the world.
The Father hath committed all judgment to the Son.
John 5:22.
10. The righteous statutes and commandments of God are called his judgments. Psalms 119:66.
11. The doctrines of the gospel, or God's word. Matthew 12:18.
12. Justice and equity. Luke 11:31. Isaiah 1:17.
13. The decrees and purposes of God concerning nations. Romans 11:33.
14. A court or tribunal. Matthew 5:21.
15. Controversies, or decisions of controversies. 1 Corinthians 6:4.
16. The gospel, or kingdom of grace. Matthew 12:18.
17. The final trial of the human race, when God will decide the fate of every individual, and award sentence according to justice.
For God shall bring every work into judgment with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. Ecclesiastes 12:14.
Judgment of God. Formerly this term was applied to extraordinary trials of secret crimes, as by arms and single combat, by ordeal, or hot plowshares, etc.; it being imagined that God would work miracles to vindicate innocence.
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, 1856
JUDGMENT, practice.

1. The decision or sentence of the law, given by a court of justice or other competent tribunal, as the result of proceedings instituted therein, for the redress of an injury.

2. The language of judgments, therefore, is not that "it is decreed," or " resolved," by the court; but " it is considered," (consideratum est per curiam) that the plaintiff recover his debt, damages, or possession, as the case may require, or that the defendant do go without day. This implies that the judgment is not so much the decision of the court, as the sentence of the law pronounced and decreed by the court, after due deliberation and inquiry.

3. To be valid, a judicial judgment must be given by a competent judge or court, at a time and place appointed by law, and in the form it requires. A judgment would be null, if the judge had not jurisdiction of the matter; or, having such jurisdiction, he exercised it when there was no court held, or but of his district; or if be rendered a judgment before the cause was prepared for a hearing.

4. The judgment must confine itself to the question raised before the court, and cannot extend beyond it. For example, where the plaintiff sued for an injury committed on his lands by animals owned and kept carelessly by defendant, the judgment may be for damages, but it cannot command the defendant for the future to keep his cattle out of the plaintiff's land. That would be to usurp the power of the legislature. A judgment declares the rights which belong to the citizen, the law alone rules future actions. The law commands all men, it is the same for all, because it is general; judgments are particular decisions, which apply only to particular persons, and bind no others; they vary like the circumstances on which they are founded.

5. Litigious contests present to the courts facts to appreciate, agreements to be construed, and points of law to be resolved. The judgment is the result of the full examination of all these.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1891
JUDGMENT.

The official and authentic decision of a court of justice upon the respective rights and claims of the parties to an action or suit therein litigated and submitted to its determination.

The conclusion of law upon facts found, or admitted by the parties, or upon their default in the course of the suit.

The decision or sentence of the law, given by a court of justice or other competent tribunal, as the result of proceedings instituted therein for the redress of an injury.

A judgment is the final determination of the rights of the parties in the action.

The term “judgment” is also used to denote the reason which the court gives for its decision; but this is more properly denominated an “opinion.”

The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895
Judgment, judgement

1. The faculty of judging.

2. The act of judging, (a) The act of affirming (or denying) a relation (as of similarity or difference) between two ideas.

3. The product of the mental act of judging; the recognition of a relation between objects; a mental affirmation or proposition; the thought that a given general representation is really applicable to a certain object; the actual consciousness of belief.

4. The decision of a judge, or of one acting as a judge; an authoritative determination; specifically, the judicial decision of a cause in court; adjudication; award; sentence.

5. An opinion formed or put forth; a conclusion drawn from premises; a decision based on observation or belief; an estimate; a view.

6. A divine allotment or dispensation; a decree or commandment of God; specifically, an event or experience regarded as a direct manifestation of the divine will, especially of the divine displeasure.

7. The final trial of the human race in the future state; the judgment-day.
Judgment of God

a phrase formerly applied to extraordinary trials of secret crimes, as by arms and single combat, by ordeal, etc., it being imagined that God would work a miracle to vindicate innocence.
judgment-day

In theol., the last day, or the day when final judgment will be pronounced on the subjects of God's moral government; doomsday. Roman Catholic theologians hold to two judgment-days: the first at death, when the eternal lot of the soul is determined by God — this being designated the private or particular judgment; the second, the great or general judgment-day, at the end of the world.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1910
JUDGMENT.

The official and authentic decision of a court of justice upon the respective rights and claims of the parties to an action or suit therein litigated and submitted to its determination.

The final determination of the rights of the parties in an action or proceeding.

The sentence of the law pronounced by the court upon the matter appearing from the previous proceedings in the suit It Is the conclusion that naturally follows from the premises of law and fact.

The determination or sentence of the law, pronounced by a competent judge or court, as the result of an action or proceeding Instituted in such court, affirming that, upon the matters submitted for its decision, a legal duty or liability does or does not exist.

The term "judgment" is also used to denote the reason which the court gives for its decision; but this is more properly denominated an "opinion."
Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, 1968
JUDGMENT.

A sense of knowledge sufficient to comprehend nature of transaction.

An opinion or estimate.

The conclusion in a syllogism having for its major and minor premises issues raised by the pleadings and the proofs thereon.

The formation of an opinion or notion concerning some thing by exercising the mind upon it.

The official and authentic decision of a court of justice upon the respective rights and claims of the parties to an action or suit therein litigated and submitted to its determination.

The term "judgment" is also used to denote the reason which the court gives for its decision; but this is more properly denominated an "opinion."

A decree is a judgment. As used in some statutes, judgment and decree are synonymous.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1979
Judgment.

A sense of knowledge sufficient to comprehend nature of transaction.

An opinion or estimate.

The formation of an opinion or notion concerning some thing by exercising the mind upon it.

The official and authentic decision of a court of justice upon the respective rights and claims of the parties to an action or suit therein litigated and submitted to its determination.

The final decision of the court resolving the dispute and determining the rights and obligations of the parties. The law's last word in a judicial controversy, it being the final determination by a court of the rights of the parties upon matters submitted to it in an action or proceeding.

Conclusion of law upon facts found or admitted by the parties or upon their default in the course of the suit. Decision or sentence of the law, given by a court of justice or other competent tribunal, as the result of proceedings instituted therein,

Decision or sentence of the law pronounced by the court and entered upon its docket, minutes or record. Determination of a court of competent jurisdiction upon matters submitted to it.

Determination or sentence of the law, pronounced by a competent judge or court, as the result of an action or proceeding instituted in such court, affirming that, upon the matters submitted for its decision, a legal duty or liability does or does not exist.

Term "judgment" under rules practice includes "decree". Fed.R.Civ.P. 54(a).

Terms "decision" and "judgment" are commonly used interchangeably.

The term "judgment" is also used to denote the reason which the court gives for its decision; but this is more properly denominated an "opinion.".
MAXIMS

Arbitrium est judicium.
An award is a judgment.

De similibus idem est judicium.
Concerning similars the judgment is the same.

Executio est executio juris secundum judicium
An execution is the execution of the law according to the judgment.

Judex bonus nihil ex arbitrio suo faciat, nec propositione domesticae voluntatis, sed juxta legis et jura pronunciet.
A good judge should do nothing from his own judgment, or from the dictates of his private wishes; but he should pronounce according to law and justice.

Judicia in deliberationibus crebro naturescunt, in accelerato processu nunquam.
Judgments frequently become matured by deliberation, never by hurried process.

Judicia sunt tanquam juris dicta, et pro veritate accipiuntur.
Judgments are, as it were, the dicta or sayings of the law, and are received as truth.

Judicium à non suo judice datum nullius est momenti.
A judgment given by an improper judge is of no moment.

Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet.
A judgment ought not to be illusory, it ought to have its consequence.

Judicium redditur in invitum, in praesumptione legis.
In presumption of law, a judgment is given against inclination.

Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur.
A judgment is always taken for truth.

Jurato creditur in judicio.
He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment.

Lex non definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittit
The law does not define exactly, but trusts in the judgment of a good man.

Non exemplis sed legivus judicandum est
Not by the facts of the case, but by the law must judgment be made.

Novum judicium non dat novum jus, sed declarat antiquum.
A new judgment does not make a new law, but declares the old.

Omnis conclusio boni et veri judicii sequitur ex bonis et veris praemissis et dictis juratorem.
Every conclusion of a good and true judgment arises from good and true premises, and the sayings of jurors.

Oportet quod certa res deducatur in judicium.
A thing, to be brought to judgment, must be certain or definite.

Quod non apparet non est, et non apparet judicialiter ante judicium.
What appears not does not exist, and nothing appears judicially before judgment.

Sacramentum habet in se tres comites, varitatem, justitiam et judicium; veritas habenda est in jurato; justitia et justicium in judice.
An oath has in it three component parts truth, justice and judgment; truth in the party swearing; justice and judgment in the judge administering the oath.

Talis interpretatio semper fienda est, ut evitetur absurdum, et inconveniens, et ne judicium sit illusorium.
Interpretation is always to be made in such a manner, that what is absurd and inconvenient is to be avoided, so that the judgment be not nugatory.

Veredictum, quasi dictum veritas; ut judicium quasi juris dictum.
A verdict is, as it were, the saying of the truth, in the same manner that a judgment is the saying of the law.

MISCELLANEOUS CITATIONS

Thompson v. Whitman, 18 Wall. 457
A court that renders judgment against a defendant thereby tacitly asserts, if it does not do so expressly, that it has jurisdiction over that defendant. But it must be taken to be established that a court cannot conclude all persons interested by its mere assertion of its own power,
Chicago Life Insurance Company et al. v. Cherry (1917)
Whenever a wrong judgment is entered against a defendant his property is taken when it should not have been, but whatever the ground may be, if the mistake is not so gross as to be impossible in the rational administration of justice, it is no more than the imperfection of man, not a denial of constitutional rights.
Commonwealth v. Marshall, 11 Pick. 350.
It is clear, that there can be no legal conviction for an offense, unless the act be contrary to law at the time it is committed; nor can there be a judgment unless the law is in force at the time of the indictment and judgment.
Howe v. Central State Bank of Coleman, Tex.Civ.App. 297 S.W. 692, 694.
Judgment taken against party who withdraws his answer is judgment nihil dicit, which amounts to a confession of cause of action stated, and carries with it, more strongly, than judgment by default, admission of justice of plaintiff's case.
Withers v. Patterson (1864) 27 Texas, 491, 96 Am. Dec. 643.
Jurisdiction of court means power or authority which is conferred upon it by the constitution and laws to hear and determine causes between parties and to carry its judgments into effect.
Norwood v. Kennfield, 34 C. 329
A universal principle as old as the law itself is that the proceedings of a court without jurisdiction are a nullity and its judgment therein without effect either on persons or property.
Kenney v. Greer (1851)
Judgment of court having no jurisdiction is void.
Hahn v. Morse (1868), 34 C. 391
A judgment is absolutely void if it appears that there was a want of jurisdiction in the court rendering it either of the subject matter or the person of the defendant.
QUOTES

Administrative Justice and The Supremacy of Law in the United States, John Dickinson, 1927
"No system of pure 'regulation by law' could exist, or has ever existed. Government has always acted on its own motion, and for other purposes than to enforce the judgments of a court."
Autopsy Report Reveals Wonder Drug Antinomy killed Christian America, John Joseph
Christ Jesus said, in full accord with the prophecies concerning Him, then, that He would Accomplish perfectly in Himself the Execution or performance of an act desired by the Intention of our Father in satisfaction of a Judgment given according to Law, thereby Answering the Obligation of man to God our Father, and Consummating the reconciliation of God and man in Himself. If one contends that consummation ends a relationship, then how does one ever remain in the state of matrimony after consummating his marriage? Does the man end the wife's life and vice versa? If Christ Jesus had done away with the Law, of what value would be the Judgment He executed? For all judgments are executed in pursuance of the law which decreed the judgment. Without the Law there is no Judgment, and no Redemption, for Redemption is made according to the Obligation of the Law so decreeing the Obligation. Without Redemption there is only condemnation. Thus, one can never be antinomian in his beliefs and acts and maintain he is a disciple of Christ Jesus. They are mutually exclusive.
Sir William Arthur Lewis:
Collective judgment of new ideas is so often wrong that it is arguable that progress depends on individuals being free to back their own judgment despite collective disapproval.
Andrew Hamilton:
Jurors should acquit, even against the judge’s instruction ... if exercising their judgment with discretion and honesty they have a clear conviction that the charge of the court is wrong.
James Madison:
No man is allowed to be a judge in his own cause, because his interest would certainly bias his judgment, and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity.
John Adams:
Therefore, the jury have the power of deciding an issue upon a general verdict. And, if they have, is it not an absurdity to suppose that the law would oblige them to find a verdict according to the direction of the court, against their own opinion, judgment, and conscience? ... s a juror to give his verdict generally, according to [the judge’s] direction, or even to find the fact specially, and submit the law to the court? Every man, of any feeling or conscience, will answer, no. It is not only his right, but his duty, in that case, to find the verdict according to his own best understanding, judgment, and conscience, though in direct opposition to the direction of the court.
Alan W. Scheflin
A juror who is forced by the judge’s instructions to convict a defendant whose conduct he applauds or at the least feels is justifiable, will lose respect for the legal system. . . . A juror compelled to decide against his own judgment will rebel at the system that made him a traitor to himself.
James P. Hughes:
The right to comment freely and criticize the action, opinions, and judgment of courts is of primary importance to the public generally. Not only is it good for the public; but it has a salutary effect on courts and judges as well.
John Locke:
Any single man must judge for himself whether circumstances warrant obedience or resistance to the commands of the civil magistrate; we are all qualified, entitled, and morally obliged to evaluate the conduct of our rulers. This political judgment, moreover, is not simply or primarily a right, but like self-preservation, a duty to God. As such it is a judgment that men cannot part with according to the God of Nature. It is the first and foremost of our inalienable rights without which we can preserve no other.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca:
Every man prefers belief to the exercise of judgment.
Richard Posner:
It is the censor's business to make a judgment about the propriety of the content or message of the proposed expressive activity. The regulation here does not authorize any judgment about the content of any speeches. ... A park is a limited space, and to allow unregulated access to all comers could easily reduce rather than enlarge the park's utility as a forum for speech. Just imagine two rallies held at the same time in the same park area using public-address systems that drowned out each other's speakers.
Samuel Adams:
Driven from every other corner of the earth, freedom of thought and the right of private judgment in matters of conscience, direct their course to this happy country as their last asylum.
Alexander Hamilton:
Responsibility, in order to be reasonable, must be limited to objects within the power of the responsible party, and in order to be effectual, must relate to operations of that power, of which a ready and proper judgment can be formed by the constituents.
Immanuel Kant:
The enjoyment of power inevitably corrupts the judgment of reason, and perverts its liberty.
Alan Watts:
Many people never grow up. They stay all their lives with a passionate need for external authority and guidance, pretending not to trust their own judgment.
Sir Winston Churchill:
The power of the Executive to cast a man into prison without formulating any charge known to the law, and particularly to deny him the judgment of his peers, is in the highest degree odious and is the foundation of all totalitarian government whether Nazi or Communist.
Teach me thy way, O LORD, and lead me in a plain path, because of mine enemies. Psalm 27:11
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